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THIRTY=FIVE YEARS 
THE EAST. 

ADVENTURES, DISCOVERIES, EXPERIMENTS, 

AND 

HISTORICAL SKETCHES, 

RELATING TO 

THE PUNJAB AND CASHMERE; 

IN CONNECTION WITH 

MEDICINE, BOTANY, PHARMACY, &c. 

BY 

JOHN MARTIN HONIGBiiRGER, 

LATE PHYSICIAN TO THE COURT OF LAHORE. 



Illustrated with numerous Engravings, con- 
taining Portraits, Fac-similes, &c. 



-t<5>5#v:?i ' 



-^ 



LONDON: 

il. BAILLIERE, 219, REGENT ST. & 29O, BROADWAY, 
NEW YORK (U.S.) R. C. LEPAGE & Co, CALCUTTA, 

1852. 




Min-as-shark talata ba kudrat ar-rahman, 
Anwar-ud-din wa al-ilm, wa al-umran. 

From the East, by the power of the merciful One, 
Lights of Science, Religion and Culture have shone. 



I for 




In the treasury of Nature there are many Gems ; 
but those only are worth carrying away, whieh we 
know how to set. 

Honigberger. 



PUBLISHER'S NOTICE. 



'■^^0<-<?^- 



John Martin Honigberger was a physician in the Court 
of Lahore when Maharajah Runjeet Singh, the Lion of the 
Punjab, was ruh'ng the country. On the death of the 
Maharajah, Honigberger stayed long in Lahore to thoroughly 
understand the people and the Court, the intrigues and 
the conspiracies which brought about the downfall of the 
Khalsa Power. Honigberger was not only a man of science, 
but he knew politics and could follow the trend of public 
afifairs and forecast the future. He commanded a happy 
narrative style of writing and related the stories of the 
Court of Lahore with a felicity of diction and a charming 
tete-d-tete fashion, which rivet the attention of the readers to 
the subjects of narration. 

" THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST " IS divided into two 
volumes. The first is full of historical sketches and per- 
sonal remine scences, the second deals with medicines 
and medicinal plants. The second volume is too techni- 
cal for the general reader now, besides the great progress, 
that the modern Medical Science has made during recent 
years, Honigberger's theories have all become more or less 
antiquated or exploded. We have therefore left out the 
second volume and published the first. 

It is said that India has effected a complete " turn 
round " during the last half of the nineteenth century, under 
British guic^ance and having the impulse of English educa- 
tion. Honigberger's historical sketches will distinctly show 
that the Punjab of 1848 is no more, — so great have been the 
changes effected. When we think that it is but sixty years 
that the Punjab has come under the British domina- 
tion and when we contemplate of the marvellous material 
and moral changes effected, we cannot but be filled with 



11 

wonder and amazement. Honigbergfer's book deleneates .^ 
half-forgotten past and accentuates the sense of won(}^ 
and admiration, "* 

This book is a good and useful companion to Cunning- 
ham's " History of the Sikhs ". Cunningham is rigid and 
matter of fact, Honigberger is amusing, and informing. 
Cunningham deals with high politics and affairs of State, 
Honigberger exults in Court gossips and personal stories, 
domestic incidents and dark conspiracies. We have already 
published Cunningham's history and we now offer Honigber- 
ger's book with the hope that it will form a fit complement 
to the " History of the Sikhs," 

It is needless to say that " Thirty-five years in the East " 
is now out of print and almost forgotten. Though a neglect- 
ed gem, it will, in its new garb attract sufficient public 
attention and patronage. Almost all the wood-engravings 
of the features of all the leading notabilities of Lahore 
during the Khalsa rule and before, have been reproduced in 
this edition. These engravings, we are told, are all faithful 
likenesses. 



The Bangabasi Office, ^^^ PUBLISHER, 

Calcutta^ September^ 1905. 



^x^TRODUCTlON, 



■o:ij- 



, ,„ ,,,, English public, In 
ON present... tins -^^^^^^^ ,:otwUl.sundu.g 
« EngUsh dvess, t -^-^^.^^'^^ „aveUers and p y- 
„u,ch l>as of late been wnUen Y ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^_ ^„,y 

--^^rtSrrr;ra%-^^ 

:rrre ^bUcat-tonsaUeady extant ^^^^^^^^^ 

"°\,„tty-five ye-YI- 4;,tS by way of the 

fflv native country (/""7' •, to India, residing 
Lvant, Egypt, A-bta-d Per.a,^^^^^^^^ ^^ 

several years in the P"")^^' ^^. ,, , penod wl-n 

gbantstan, Bokhara, »"^ J^^'^fi^;,,,,, to Europeans- 

?„ese countries were ^^^ UtU^^J^ .,, f,, satisfying uiy 

afforded me ample opportu ^^^^^^^^^ ,^„ ,e- 

ardent desires for reseacland^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ 

,q„aintance with some ^^^^.^,, of 

^^^^^^^^^^ -' "" "'"■ 

place of science ,^ researches was cons.der- 

Theprosecutionofmy es ,^^^_^^ 

ably aided by my '"'l"^'"'' /sUch Court of Lahore, 
lars, as Physician to ''- ^ « ^'^ .i.tory of the 

' TUose who take ----- ,^,t volume, many 
- Punjab, may find, "'Y^ci and illustrations of 
f '"'" ^Inrlst^r and tntrigues •. also, a 
!Xils—Wrecent events. 



ii INTRODUCTION. 

The second volume, although a medical w\ 
has not been written for physicians only ; it 
apprehensible and may be useful to all readers. Tc 
render it the more acceptable to those in the East, 
in addition to the Flora Medica of Cashmere, with 
its properties and uses, as also those of many other 
oriental plants and drugs, I have superadded a 
Medical Vocabulary, in nine languages. 

A variety of discoveries," curious experiments, and 
remarkable incidents, may be found in these vol- 
umes, collected during a sojourn of many years — 
useful, I hope, to both naturalists and historians. 

During my fifteen years' residence at Lahore, 
as well as on my frequent journeys, I embraced every 
opportunity of devoting my attention to the exami- 
nation of the various medical systems of the day, 
and to the experimenting on the qualities of nu- 
merous medicines, whether known or unknown to 
practitioners. Freed from every selfish motive, I 
now ingenuously present to the British public, the 
results of these researches, which were carried on 
with unwearied perseverance. I am not under the 
influence of the mania oi system-making \ my object 
is, simply, to aid the alleviation of the sufi'erings of 
humanity and to enrich science, as far as my abilities 
may permit. I have been guided solely by the 
proverb, *' Nulla re homo prop rius accedit ad Deum^ 
quam salute hominibus danda /" i. e., " Nothing 
brings man nearer to God, than man's helping his 
suflfering fellow-creatures." 

It is no easy matter to eradicate systems which 
have been deeply rooted for centuries. Who will 
take upon himself the responsibility of a change 
affecting the existence and welfare of myriads of 



INTRODUCTION. ill 

human beings ? Accurately expressed, my System 
can scarcely be called a 7iezv one ; it is, more 
properly, a medium between two extremes ; a 
system grounded on experiments, which I advisedly 
adopted, and which success impelled me to pursue. 
I am persuaded, that any one who may be guided 
by the instructions I now give, and who may follow a 
like course, cannot fail to obtain similarly happy 
results. 

Notwithstanding I spared no pains, endured much 
fatigue, and deemed not any sacrifice too great, par- 
ticularly during the last ten years I abode at Lahore, 
to accomplish my object, I am far from supposing 
the subject to be exhausted. On the contrary, I feel, 
that though much has been done, much remains still 
to be done ; and I trust that others may assist in 
bringing the work which I have commenced, to that 
degree of perfection, of which I am convinced it is 
susceptible. 

It is impossible to entertain any high opinion of 
the healing-art of the Mahomedan doctors, derived 
from the ancient Greeks and Egyptians ( Hiababet- 
junany of the Hakims) or, of that of the Hindoos ; 
for, they have made but little progress beyond that 
defective medical science which is found in their old 
manuscripts. Their directions for the treatment of 
patients, contain little else than extravagances and 
superstitions — to which the Hindoos, whose system 
is the most ancient, add astrology. As their religion 
stands in the way of every attempt at improvement, 
there is but little hope that they will ever make much 
progress in medicine, or, relinquish their absurd the- 
ories ; and nothing remains for us, but to pity those 
who are doomed still to continue in darkness. Yet, 



IV INTRODUCTION. 

we ought not entirely to disregard old works, but to 
select, as I have done, such portions as appear useful. 
I have tested some of the simple remedies mentioned 
in their books, which, having been injudiciously 
administered, had fallen into disuse (their real utility 
being misunderstood, or, overlooked) and, in some 
cases, I found them very efficacious. In prosecuting 
my experiments, I principally consulted the Persian 
.works, Tohfct Kliany^ and Tohfet al Mominin. And 
to these 1 shall refer, as often as the special cases 1 
relate, may require. 

At present, there are two different systems of 
medical treatment practised in Europe, viz.^ Allceo- 
pathia and IIom(£Opathia ; both of which have been 
contending for supremacy, during the last half- 
century. The former is the ancient method, and is 
universally recognised and taught in all the univer- 
sities of Europe ; but, as both of these systems 
have their /ro. and con. I shall, for the sake of the 
general reader, give a concise account of each ; 
which accounts may, at the same time, serve as an in- 
troduction to the medium-system I have adopted. 

Alloeopathia contains remedies which operate so 
violently, that, if the doses administered are not very 
nicely adjusted to the disease, or, if a mistake occur 
(which too often happens) the effect, instead of being 
salutary, proves injurious, if not fatal ; and the 
patient then dies, not of disease, but, from the im- 
proper means used for its removal. In such cases, it 
would have been better to have left the patient to 
the fostering care of nature. The number of 
those who are sent (some of them in the prime of 
life)- prematurely to their graves, through injudi- 
cious treatment, is by no means inconsiderable ; 



rNTRODUCTrON^ V 

neither is the number small of tliose unfortunates,, 
who, from the too violent operations of medicine, 
live only to wander about as cripples or phantoms, 
weak and disabled, a burden to themselves and 
others, some of them longing for death, as the only 
deliverance from their miseries. 

Girtanner, in his Therapeutics^ Vol. II., p. 600, 
acknowledges, that " The apparatus inedicq.minum is 
nothing more than a careful collection of all the so- 
phisms which have been invented by the medical prac- 
titioners of former times. It is true, some valuable 
experience may be found among this immense heap 
of verbosity ; but, who would spend his time in 
selecting a few grains of pure metal from such an 
enormous heap of rubbish as that which has been 
accumulating for 2,000 years. In the worse than 
Egyptian darkness in which the physician has to 
grope his way, he scarcely perceives a ray of light to 
guide him through the ' palpable obscure.' When 
two physicians meet at a sick-bed, it is with difficulty 
they refrain from laughing — like two augurs of 
Rome." 

Lemiere is quite right in saying — 

Lorsque la fievre et ses brulantes crises 
Ont de notre machine attaqueles ressorts, 
Le corps humain est un champ-clos alors, . 
Ou la nature et le mal sont aux prises, 
II parvint un aveugle, appelle medecin. 
Tout au travers, il frappe a I'aventure : 
S'il attrappe le mal, il fait un homme sain. 
Et du malade un mort, s'il frappe la nature. 

In the Heidelberg Clinical Annal^ Vol.. V. Part 
Zy it is stated, *' More individuals perish through the 



VI INTKODUCTrOPf. 

interference of physicians, than are saved by their 
assistance." 

Hence, many have lost all confidence in medicine; 
for, the dark side (the defects of the art) cannot be 
concealed from even the uninitiated. Lord Bacon* 
says — " I will not deny that physicians of the present 
day are indiflferently well acquainted with the general 
symptoms of a disease ; but, either they do not right- 
ly understand, or, h^ve not sufficiently examined the 
medicines which they prescribe in particular cases. 
The addition, diminution, and alteration of medi- 
cines, in the most arbitrary manner, so that usually 
one medicine is substituted for another, is quite a 
common proceeding," 

Peter Frank, in his System of Medical Police^ 
Vol, i. says, "It is strange that the government 
should interfere only in time of epidemics and 
against charlatans, whilst it takes no notice of the 
thousands who are daily sacrific;ed in their solitary 
chambers. Governments should determine either to 
banish all physicians and their art, or, take measures 
to render men's lives more secure than they are at 
present." 

Confessions like these, by physicians themselVes, 
are so numerous and so well known, as to render 
more quotations unnecessary ; those which I have 
given aflfording the most conclusive evidence of the 
defectiveness and uncertainty of Allosopathic medical 
science. 

It was, without doubt, the defects of the science 
of healing as practised by the Alloeopathists, which 
induced the immortal Hahnemann to embrace and 
propagate the doctrine of similia similibus cur- 
antur. 



INTRODUCTION. Vli 

There cannot be anything more irrational, than an 
implicit adherence to a system, without a pre- 
vious examination of it ; without having tested it, 
and satisfactorily proved it (" Jurare in verba 
magistrt ") consequently, I do not profess myself a 
votary of Hahnemann's system. In the course of 
this work, I shall have to cite cases wherein it will 
appear, that the most minute doses of a medicine 
have, sometimes, proved efficacious ; whilst, in 
other instances, they did not produce any effect 
whatever ; and I am bound to confess, that, in the 
majority of cases, the results I obtained from 
Homoeopathy, were not favorable ; I felt persuaded, 
that larger doses would have been better. 1 have 
also found it injudicious to wait too long in order to 
discover, by the operation of a medicine, if it were 
well-chosen ; and I consider it erroneous to pres- 
cribe for a patient the strictest diet, prohibiting 
the use of such things as the body has been accus- 
tomed to — particulary tea and cofee^ which have a 
stimulating influence on the nerves and blood 
vessels. I do not deny the antipsoric theory in 
several chronic diseases ; nor do I, like Hahnemann, 
reject the use of external adjuvantia — such as bleed- 
ing, blistering, &c. 

The disciples of Hahnemann are of opinion, that, 
as tea and coffee exercise a peculiar influence on the 
nervous system, and are therefore good and certain 
remedies for persons unaccustomed to the use of 
them, they should be used medicinally only. But 
let me urge, amongst the substances whicli consti- 
tute our usual nourishment, or things which we 
consume as articles of luxury, there are many which 
affect the nerves even more strongly than tea or 



viii ''INTRODUCTION. 

•cotfee ; therefore, by parity of reason, we ought to 
debar ourselves of them also. 

Hahnemann, who daily enjoyed his glass of beer 
and his pipe, took both these favorites under his 
protection, declaring them less obnoxious than tea 
and coffee ; but, who can blame me for having in- 
clinations of an opposite cast? I cannot endure 
strong beer, and smoking produces nausea, whilst 
I find tea and coflFee very agreeable, never experienc- 
ing the slightest injurious effect from either of them, 
for, I am accustomed to both Similar results will 
necessarily occur to every one who habitually uses 
certain special articles of diet. We daily con- 
sume a considerable quantity of common salt, in 
our various dishes. Many would be surprised, 
could they see the yearly amount collected into one 
mass ; and would be inclined to think, that our 
stomachs, and, perhaps, our intestines, also, would 
finally bex:ome crusted with a coat of salt : yet, 
whilst in combination with our diet, it does not 
produce any striking, or sensible effects, it, never- 
theless, proves a very efficacious remedy, when 
administered as a medicament, in proper doses. 

On attentively considering what I have just 
stated, the reader cannot think it extraordinary 
that I regard the two medical systems, Alloeopathia 
and Uomoeopathia, as two opposite poles. The first 
rushes into the field, armed with enormous pills, 
and bottles of all sizes, containing the most powerful 
mixtures, striking at the foe with wild and deadly 
force ; the other, with less martial display, attacks 
the enemy in a manner which seems the quintes- 
sence of feebleness and inertia — a small case, con- 
taining pygmean flasks, filled with lillpiutian pills 



INTRODUCTION. Jx 

which the least breeze would scatter to the winds, 
■and a few minute drops, are all the direful weapons. 
The drops are not always the pure extract of the 
'medicinal plants, but are sometimes diluted to a 
decillionth of their strength ; and even the smell- 
sing at some of these substances is said to be occa- 
sionally sufficient to work miracles. 

All our medical knowledge is tlie result of experi- 
ence ; and the reason why we have made so little 
progress in medicine is, that its professors have not 
divested themselves of that narrow-minded adherence 
to ancient maxims, which rejects all experimental 
results that are not recognised in their dogmas. 

I look upon the immeasurable realms of medicine 
as a republic, founded for the welfare and prosperity 
of mankind. There should be neither exclusive 
authority, nor respect of persons. The members of 
this commonwealth, in wandering with measured 
tread about its sometimes gloomy precincts, will, by 
careful research find some untrodden paths, which lead 
to undiscovered treasures. It is thus that I have spent 
the greater part of my life, and I am desirous of point- 
ing out to others the road which I found most 
agreeable and safe. It is unlike that followed by 
many of our contemporaries, who, infatuated by their 
own system, drag their patients over gulfs and 
precipices. Mine is a smooth and middle course ; 
following so much only of every other as I 
have, by the observation of many years, proved use- 
ful. Moreover, this new path is easier, less perilous, 
more agreeable, and less expensive. 

During the latter years of my residence at Lahore, 
xr\y practice was corwned with the greatest success ; 
and after having scrutinized my theory^ I became 

2 



X INTRODUCTION. 

convinced that this medium-s\stem was tlie best, 
and I now confidently recommned it as the most 
efficients 

" Magna est Veritas et prcevalebit." 
" Truth is mighty, and must prevail." 

Besides other advantages which this system pos- 
sesses, the remedies are administered in so agree- 
able a form, that they may be taken without the 
consciousness of their being medicinal. This is 
worthy of attention, as it removes one of the many 
difficulties which obstruct the way of the physician, 
in the exercise of his profession. He has often to 
contend with prejudices and notions imbibed in early 
infancy, and to attend.to idiosyncrasies, lest he should 
increase instead of removing evils. In children, he 
has to struggle with obstinacy, ill-humor caused by 
pain, &c. In the treatment of females, he must 
never lose sight of their nervous mobility (natural or 
aflfected) which often becomes constitutional ; their 
greater sensitiveness, their stronger irritability, and 
their more delicate organisation \ and if, eventually, 
he is fortunate enough to conquer all these difficulties, 
still he may not cry victory^ until he has acquired the 
art of removing from his prescriptions all that is nau- 
seous or disagreeable. 

It is a palpable act of cruelty in mothers to force 
their infants to swallow remedies which are repug- 
nant to their taste, in the mistaken notion that bitter 
pains must be removed by bitter medicines. Nature, 
in placing at our disposal such vast stores of medi- 
cinal treasures, surely never conceived the revenge- 
ful notion of punishing those who had recourse to 
their aid. It is more consonant with reason to suppose, 



INTRODUCTION. X» 

that tliey were benevolently endowed by natufe with 
their nauseous flavor to warn us against the danger 
of using theni*too freely. 

A physician might as rationally assert, that it is 
possible for him to give to the rotation of the earth 
any direction he w/Z/s, as that the remedies he admi- 
nisters in accordance with the mere custom of the 
profession, must infallibly prove beneficial. He can- 
not dictate laws to Nature in either cas« ; experi- 
ence alone is the teacher and- arbiter, and on experi- 
ence must we ground our hopes. But, as hope often 
deceives us ; and as even the most skilful physician is 
not infalhble ; the grand rule to be adopted is — "^// 
strong doses to be avoided^ and such only to be ad- 
ministered as, though they may not benefit, yet, cannot 
do any harm." This rule may easily be followed, if 
we acquaint ourselves with the effects of medicines 
both in large and minute doses ; and I think, that 
without this knowledge, no physician can prescribe 
any remedy whatever, with a clear conscience. Th€ 
point to which I devoted the greatest attention in my 
investigations, was — observing the effects produced 
by various medicines ; and it was not until the opera- 
lion of a prescription had been thoroughly tested, 
that I feh confidence in prescribing it in similar 
cases — similia similibus. 

The ancients, without being acquainted with the 
natural law of similia similibus curantur ( according 
to which small doses are required) were well aware of 
the injurious effects of large doses, and recommended 
the greatest caution — Praestat pauca dost, et per in- 
tervalla remedia exhibere, quam uno impetu ventri- 
culum remediorum tnoleste obruere \ i. e , " it is better 
to give a medicine in small doses, and at intervals, 



xn IxNTRODUCTION. 

than to load the stomach wiili it in large quantities 
at once." If they thus spoke and acted in the days 
when remedies were mild, and had but little i^ifluence 
on the patient ; if they then said — Salvia cum ruta 
faciunt tibi pociila tiita^ how much more should this 
golden rule be observed by us, now that the progress 
of chemistry has unfolded the powers of those 
simple remedies. 

I have no great opinion of the so-called nostrums ;: 
but, as we are recommended to " prove all things, 
and hold fast that which is good," I tried some of 
them, out of curiosity. The celebrated Morrison's- 
and also HoUoway's pills, I found, as I expected,, 
violent purgatives, which may, however, be employed- 
with advantage (?) by a judicious physician, I need' 
scarcely observe, that they do not deserve the name 
oi panacea ; neither can I advise any one, to take 
either of them in the beginning of a violent fever, 
having witnessed bad consequences from so doing,. 
I have administered the above-mentioned pills, in 
small doses ; also Warburg's fever drops, which are 
reputed good ; and the reader may find a descrip- 
tion of their efifects and composition in th« second 
volume. I was pleased to see in a Report in the 
Bengal Pharmxcopxia (1844, p. 147) that arsenic in 
very minute doses, recommended as a diuretic, which 
is driven oflf with the urine, may be again easily de- 
tected in it. It is highly probable, that if we were as 
well acquainted with the re-agents of other medici- 
nes as we are with those of arsenic, and if we know 
where to look for their action, i. e.^ whether in 
the blood-vessels or in the nerves, in the lymphatic 
system or in the cellular tissue, in the gall or in 
the bladder, in the spleen, in the liver, in the 



INTRODUCTION, XUV 

kidneys, in the stomach, or even in the intestinal' 
canal, we might then be able to detect their viodiis 
operandi also. 

\ni\\t Bengal Dispensatory^ p. 162, it is said of 
Ranunculeae^ — " They are extremely acrid and corro- 
sive ; and so unmanageable, as to be excluded from 
medical use by all modern practitioners." It would, 
indeed, be much better to desist from using such- 
strong medicaments altogether, when they are em- 
ployed in undiluted doses only. It is really piti- 
able when all other arts and sciences have made 
such important progress, that medicine alone should' 
continue stationary ; that its professors, from an- 
unwillingness to investigate the nature, virtue, or 
proper use of medicinal substances, should fancy 
themselves bound to condemn simple yet efficacious 
plants to oblivion, as things which providence has 
created for the delight of our eyes only, and which 
are sure to injure us, should we attempt to use 
them ! Almost all the plants which were employed! 
formerly, have met with this fate. Where are the 
Salvia, the Ruta, Euphrasia,. Imperatoria ? As for 
the deadly poisons,. Calomel and Opium ! these 
glitter as fatally brilliant in the East Indian medi- 
cinal horizon, as they do among English physicianSi 
How beautiful and true are the lines of Shakes- 
peare — 



O, mickle is the powerful grace, that lies 
In plants, herbs, stones, and their true qualities : 
For naught so vile, that on the earth doth live, 
But to the earth some special good doth give ; 
Nor aught so good, but strained from that fair use, 
Revolts from true birth, sturabling^on abuse. 



J£1V INTRODUCTION". 

If the bee can suck nectar from poisonotis planfSjr 
why should not man discover their properties, and 
derive benefit by employing them as remedies for 
ills ? " In for^nica non modo sen-sus^ sed eiiofn 7nenSy 
ratio^ et memorta." What vast medicinal treasures 
do the varied productions of the Himalaya Moun- 
tains offer to the inhabitants of India ! Could they 
be made to appreciate their value, how readily would 
they employ them. 

As the efficacy of a medicine depends upon its 
being properly prepared, I advise physicians in India 
to keep such plants as the Ranunculaceae (which 
grow abundantly in the Himalaya Mountains 
and in the valley of Cashmere, and which contain 
volatile substances) in well-closed vessels. They 
ought to be prepared on the spot, either as an 
essence, or, as as a conserve, and kept in a temperate 
place, secure from the decomposing rays of 
the sun. The supply should also be renewed once 
a year, at least. Such precautions are absolutely 
necessary, if we really desire to attain our object. 
Dried herbs, from the apothecary or druggist, are of- 
ten ineflfectual, from being old and spoiled. It must 
not, however, be inferred, that the volatile parts 
alone are valuable ; brewers, from long experience, 
consider old hops more powerful than new ; and as- 
arabacca acts in its fresh state as an emetic, and 
when old as a purgative. 

Much depends upon the soil in which plants grow, 
as also on the climate. " Diffcre qiioque pro natiira 
locorum genera inedLcinae!' Celsus Med. Libr. 
proefat. 

Thus, Cannabis Indica grows higher, stronger, 
and more lu.xuriantly in Cashmere than in the plains 



INTRODUCTION, xv 

«(»f India, and has been monopolized by tlie Casli- 
merean goveramenU The chiimis is prepared from 
\k^ and sold in India, where it is mixed with tomakoo 
( tobacco ), and used for the purpose of producinj^ 
intoxication, principally by the faqiieers, who smoke 
it through the hooka. Besides the hemp-plant, two 
other valuable productions of the country, saffron 
( Crocus sat. ) and the putchuk-root ( Costis nigt\ 
Cashm. ) have also been monopolized by the govern- 
ment. Notwithstanding this fact, and the proximity 
,cf the country, it is stated in the Bengal Dispensa- 
tory^ p. 692, •' Putchuk-root is brought from Lahore, 
where it is called kooi^ it is of unknown origin ; it is 
chiefly exported to China, where it is used as in- 
cense," &c. (!) 

Twenty years ago, when I was still ignorant of 
what drugs were to be obtained in the Bazaar at La- 
hore, I sent to an apothecary in Calcutta, for Stry- 
chnos faba St. Ignatii^ and succiis sepioe ; instead of 
the first, I received Strychnos nux vomica^ which 
belongs to the family of the Strychnos ! and instead 
of the latter ( the tint of the cuttle-fish ) I received 
cuttle-Jish shells, although, as the reader may be 
aware, the latter have a different color and a different 
effect. All these species of Strychnos and ossa sepioe 
can, however, be procured in any quantity at the 
Lahore Bazaar. 

My long residence in " the land of the five rivers" 
afforded me the opportunity of becoming well ac- 
quainted not only with the country and its produc- 
tions, but, also with its endemical and epidemical 
diseases ; its medicinal substances, and the verna- 
cular names both of diseases and medicaments ; all 
of which are less known to English physicians than 



^Vi IINTR0DUCTI0"N. 

those of the lower provinces, that part of Hindo- 
Stan being a newly^conquered country. In order to 
render the work more acceptable to the English 
faculty, I have introduced these particulars in the 
-second volume, where, besides a description of the 
new method of treatment I adopted, may be found 
( as already stated ) the Flora Cashmerean, which, 
though not perfect, contains many of the principal 
tqualities and hitherto unknown effects of those 
.plants, which, by experiment, I discovered. 

The illustrative plates have been drawn with 
accuracy. 

My object is, to place the work within the reach 
of every one whose health is dear to him, and to 
render it useful to all. It will be found more es- 
pecially valuable to those, who, living in the in- 
terior of the country, are shut out from immediate 
medical assistance ; also to travellers, who are 
much exposed to noxious influences, and who may 
not have a physician near them. With the aid of 
this work, and a family medicine-chest ( which can 
he prepared, at a trifling expense, at any pharmaco- 
polist's, where the purity of the articles and the 
exactness of their preparation may be depended 
(upon ) my advice can be followed, as easily and 
certainly, as if I were consulted personally. 

Every rational being ought to possess at least 
some slight acquaintance with the structure of the 
'human body, and also of its functions ; and should 
acquire a knowledge of so much of the healing-art 
as may be necessary to maintain a healthy action 
under ordinary circumstances. The celebrated 
Delphic inscription — /. e. Know Thyself^ wliicli 
sentence of the Oracle greeted every one who 



INTRODUCTION. xvil 

entered the Temple of Wisdom, teaches us, plainly, 
that the sages of antiquity were well aware of the 
importance of this study. It often happens, that he 
who has even but a slight knowledge of medicine, 
and understands the peculiarities of his own con- 
stitution, is able, by the timely application of a 
suitable remedy, entirely to remove, or lessen, any 
illness with which he may be attacked. 

English physicians residing in the East, and more 
especially those in the Punjab, may derive great ad- 
vantage from the Flora Mcdica Cashmereana. I 
should recommend them to apply to the Secretary 
of the Medical Club at Lahore, that he may send 
them^ annually, £ small but fresh supply of herbs, 
and to use them according to the System I lay 
down in this work. 

It would, indeed, be desirable for physicians who 
intend to establish themselves in any country, to 
make themselves acquainted with the productions 
of the locality, and to try the qualities of indi- 
genous plants on healthy as well as on diseased in- 
dividuals, that they may be able to use them ad- 
vantageously. Such a course would not only render 
the physician independent of the supplies of medi- 
cines from foreign countries, and furnish him with 
remedial agents on the qualities of which he could 
depend, but he v/ould, at the same time, be render- 
ing a service to mankind, by the occasional dis- 
coveries with which he might enrich medical science. 
It was thus, that I discovered the healing properties 
of nearly all the plants which are mentioned in my 
Materia Medica, in the second volume. 

If this advice were generally acted upon, a 
considerable saving would be ensured to the 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 

Government in India, which is now at mnch expense, 
in importing costly medicines, for the use of the 
troops, &c., an expense which might be almost en- 
tirely avoided, if the physicians there were ac- 
quainted with the properties of the native plants 
and drugs. 

When I went to Lahore the second time, I was, 
as before, appointed Physician to the Court, and 
also Superintendent of the gunpowder-mill and gun- 
manufactory. The Dar-iil-Shefa ( hospital ) in the 
city, was under the direction of two brothers, 
Azeez-oo-Deen and Noor-oo-Deen, both rich faqueers, 
and the government paid for the medicines which 
were daily distributed there ; but, although I/nade 
some experiments on my new system, at my own 
expense, yet, my opportunities were very limited, 
as it was not within my province to attend the 
Dar-ul-Shefa of the faqueers. When the English 
came, however, they shut up the gun and powder 
manufactories, and ordered the Durbar to erect a 
public hospital outside the city. The management 
of this establishment was entrusted to me, and I 
then obtained the long-desired opportunity of con- 
tinuing my experiments, uncontrolled, in the new 
method of treatment, and on a large scale, until 
the annexation of the country, in May 1849 ; the 
results of which surpassed my most sanguine antici- 
pations. 

My waiting-room was constantly filled vvith 
patients, attracted not only by the inviting appear- 
ance and sweet taste of the medicines ( lozenges ), 
and the ( to them ) pretty wooden boxes in which 
they were delivered ; but also, by the efficacy 
which they found these bonbons to possess. The 



INTRODUCTION. xix 

establishment presented a curious aspect. My de- 
partment, more resembling, in its adjuncts, a con- 
fectioner's shop than a repository of drugs, was on 
one side of the building, and the other side was 
occupied by the Hakim ( Mahomedan doctor ) ap- 
pointed by the Durhar to assist me, and who was 
at liberty to treat patients according to his own 
system ; so that applicants could employ native or 
European remedies, as they felt disposed. But, 
what a diflference ! what a wide gulf between the 
two methods ! On the one hand, my hitherto un- 
known mcdiiim'System ( which then still slumbered 
like an embryo ), the principles of which I have al- 
ready mentioned, and, on the other, the obsolete 
Junanian ( Grecian ) or Arabic system, which, with 
many of its medicaments, has long been banished 
European practice.. 

In this hospital, also, I was entrusted with the 
care and treatment of lunatics ; and, in the interior,, 
sat three Jerahs or native surgeons, also appointed 
by the Durbar, who v/ere occupied in the adminis- 
tration of ointment, plasters, &c., for external heal-- 
ing ; so that, with those patients who came to avail 
themselves of the services of these Jerahs, those 
who came to consult with the Hakim, and those 
who preferred my advice, the hospital was a com- 
plete mile ( fair ) from morning till night. 

It was with difficulty that I could satisfy the de- 
mands of the multitudes who came from the 
neighbouring towns and villages for medicines, not- 
withstanding I was provided with several assistants 
besides those already mentioned. 

One day, a man, who, in passing, had heard that 
the Dakter Saheh ( Gentleman Doctor ) distributed 



X5t , INTRODUCTION. 

such good medicines, in boxes, was desirous to ob- 
tain some for himself and friends, A few months 
afterwards, the same man returned, bringing back 
the box I had given him, and asked for some 
more of the lozenges, for one of his friends, as the 
previous supply had been of much service. The 
paper on which 1 had written the symptoms of the 
disease, the remedy (lens J, and the date when I had 
given it, was still in the box. The man assured 
me that he came from Loodiana, a= distance of 140 
miles, that he had no other business in Lahore, 
and that he intended to return immediately. A 
long journey, thought 1, to take for a few lentils 
which I had that day prepared. 

To avoid mistakes in the application of remedies 
( one messenger often applying for medicines for 
three or four patients ), I made use of larger and^ 
smaller boxes of different colors ; each of which 
contained a paper, whereon was noted the prin- 
cipal symptoms of the disease, the name of the 
remedy, the quantity, how to be taken, and the 
date on which it was delivered. It may easily be 
conceived, that, as I sometimes did not see the 
patients, it was difficult to form a diagnosis, espe- 
cially in such cases as cutaneous diseases and affec- 
tions of the eye. For instance, I once sent a 
remedy for blindness, and received the agreeable 
intelligence that the patient had recovered his sight ; 
but, I confess, to this day, I am not aware what the 
disease of the eye was ; probably. Amaurosis. 
Besides the afore-mentioned occupations, 1 received 
an order from the Durbar to establish an hospital 
in the jail of Lahore also, which was on the same 
spot whereon, a short time before, 1 had erected the 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 

powder-mill. During the last two years of my office 
(1848 and 1849) out of 800 prisoners, only twenty- 
one patients died in the space of twelve months, and 
they, of severe wounds, marasmus, or dysentery. 
The jail, with its hospital, is situated outside the city, 
in one of the filthiest quarters, where all the wells of 
the neighbourhood contain briny or bitter water ; and 
notwithstanding all my endeavours and remons- 
trances, I could not obtain from the government any 
better nourishment for my patients, than the usual 
jail diet, so that I was obliged, in several cases, to 
have recourse to a part of the unemployed funds of 
the public hospital of the Durbar, in order to provide 
such comforts as were necessary. Taking these 
circumstances into consideration, my management 
was peculiarly fortunate ; for, during a period of two 
years from the foundation of that hospital, not a 
single patient died of an acute disease — such as in- 
flammation, fever, cholera, serpent bites, &c., of 
which I had many cases ; some of them so danger- 
ous, that I had to visit the patients three or four 
times a-day. My successor was less fortunate ; for, 
during the first six months after the annexation (from 
May till October 1849) while I was still in the coun- 
try, he lost upwards of sixty patients out of 1,000, 
not to mention those v/ho were dismissed as incurable, 
I may state, with regard to the latter, that the ex- 
periments I made on similar diseases had often been^ 
crowned with success. It was thought that the 
great mortality during these six months was caused 
by the small and unhealthy situation of the hospital, 
in consequence of which a larger was built, on the 
opposite side of the jail. The prisoners received 
better nourishment, were not so oppressed by hard 



XXII INTRODUCTIONi 

labor, and were permitted to use tobacco, opiunTj, 
poppy-heads, hemp, churrus, &c., which had been^ 
prohibited. I afterwards learned, that these changes 
had not been of much use ; and I believe the morta- 
lity is still greater than that of the first two years. 
Among my papers, I have met with the following 
letter, which 1 received at Lahore, and which may 
serve as a proof to unbelievers in the efficacy of my 
minute doses — ■ 

Residency, 2nd December, 1847. 

Dear and respected Sir, 

I may appear seemingly to have neglected 
your prescriptions, but I assure you, I have not. The reason 
of my not doing myself the pleasure to call on you, has 
been owing principally to heavy business, consequent on Col. 
Lawrence's leaving this, and some little to the distance of 
your present residence. The lozenges, however, last sup- 
plied, being over, I come before you again a beggar ; but, 
before you comply with my petition, permit me to mention 
the effect of your medicine. The largest sore in my gums 
is nearly filled up with fresh flesh, while the discharge 
generally from the gums is greatly lessened. My general 
health is improved so much, that I fear I am becoming 
almost as stout again as I was at Simla, and when it is 
considered that I had but lately recovered from a violer>t 
attack of the liver, it must be confessed that my present 
improved health is to be ascribed to your valuable medicines 
for the last month and half. While I thus express my most 
grateful obligations, I trust you will continue your kind 
favors for a little longer, and therefore beg a fresh supply, 
to be sent in an envelope, the box being at home. Allow me 
to subscribe myself, with high respect, 

Dear Sir, 
Your obedient humble Servant, 

Wm, Skinner^ 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

1 might produce many such testimonials, but they 
are unnecessary ; as I have not any desire to obtrude 
my System on the public. I simply call attention to 
that which I have experienced, and leave it to every 
reader to examine and judge for himself. I wish to 
avoid self-praise, and honestly to give the impartial 
reader an opportunity of judging from this work, 
v/hether the happy results, herein described, are to be 
attributed to good-fortune, or, to the excellence of 
the system, and my peculiar mode of treatment. 

We have continually to combat with deeply root- 
ed habits and prejudices ; and it requires no little 
patience, constancy, and perseverance to come off 
triumphant. Habit exercises a powerful influence 
on the mental faculties, as well as on the physical 
organisation. It is a very difficult task, and one 
which requires indomitable resolution, to forget 
what we have once learned, and to apply ourselves 
to the study of things which may have appeared im- 
possible. Yet, men of sense often change their 
opinions — blockheads, never. This is especially the 
case with persons who are strongly prejudiced in 
favor of Systems to which they are indebted for 
their reputation, extensive practice, and good in- 
come. It can scarcely be expected that men should 
abandon their lengthy prescriptions and familiar 
methods, to study new ones ; or, that they should 
be persuaded that minute doses could produce 
eff'ects more salutary and rapidly than larger ones. 
Above all, those who prefer gain to conscientious- 
ness, may be expected to raise an outcry against 
this publication. To those who may attempt to 
decry my System, whether from pecuniary interest, 
ignorance, or a lack of power to relinquish prejudices, 



^2CXIV INTRODUCTION. 

I say, with Cicero — Tacere prcestat philosoplih^ 
qiiam loqiii. To those who may ingenuously desire 
to correct errors, and who possess manliness suffi- 
cient to offer judicious advice, i shall give my 
cordial thanks, knowing how to appreciate an im- 
partial critique. Palmam qui meruit fer at. — "Be 
'his the palm who merits it." 

If my work meets with a favorable reception, and 
is considered useful, I shall feel happy in having at- 
tained my most ardent wishes ; I shall forget the toils, 
dangers, and sacrifices I have undergone, and, more- 
over, escape the lot of many, who, after having spent 
the greater portion of their lives and fortune, and, 
not unfrequently, ruined their health, in rendering 
themselves useful to mankind, have too often met 
with ingratitude, and, sometimes, with persecution. 
Many benefactors of the human species have ex- 
perienced such treatment, and analogy almost pre- 
pares us to expect it. If we turn to the histories of 
important discoveries and inventions, we shall find, 
that, on their first announcement, they were con- 
temned and ridiculed, while the inventors and dis- 
coverers were laughed at, misrepresented, and vilified. 
Sydenham, whose memory we must revere, was, by 
several of his contemporaries, stigmatized with the 
name of quack^ and murderer. Many now celebrated 
men, who, in the fourteenth century distinguished 
themselves by their knowledge of physical science, 
were burned as sorcerers, Galileo was imprisoned I j^ 
in his seventieth year, for maintaining the rotation of I ^^ 
the earth ; and posterity may, perhaps, admire some I i 
of our cotemporaries, who having done much for the 
advancement of arts and sciences, have not enjoyed I ^^ 
the esteem they merit. 



e 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

We daily observe what extraordinary things can 
^e achieved by persevering practice, and what 
strange facts are brought to light by scientific in- 
vestigation ; nevertheless, there are men of our day, 
'who will not even admit the truth of animal 
magnetism ; still less will they give credence to 
that remarkable power of suspending existence, as 
illustrated in the account of the Faqiieer HaridaSy 
who could place himself in a state of asphyxia^ and> 
after remaining buried in the earth for months, could, 
•by pursuing his instructions, again be restored to life. 
This fact is already known to the reading world, and 
•appears in a detailed form, in this volume, page 127. 

We may perceive from what is passing around us, 
that nature works destructively on one side, and pro- 
ductively on the other; incessantly striving, as it were^ 
to preserve a balance. In this continual change of 
matter, subtile elements are generated which some- 
times have pernicious influences on living beings,, 
and occasion various diseases. We know, that the 
preserving and healing power of nature fviz.y conser- 
vatrix et viz mcdicatrix 7iaturae) may go hand in 
hand with medical assistance, although we do not 
know by what agency they operate ; nor do we 
•know anything of the formation and constituent parts 
of any disease, epidemical or endemical. Do we 
know the nature of mineral, or, animal magnetism ? 
electricity, attraction, or repulsion ? Who can say, 
how aerolites are formed in the higher atmospheric 
regions? The book of nature lies open before us; 
but, who can decipher it ? 

The different qualities of a medicament can be 
determined, only by careful and reiterated trials on 
healthy as well as on diseased individuals. Experience 

4 



XXVi INTRODUCTION. 

teaches us, that the effects of remedies are 
manifold ; that the same medicine operates very 
differently, according to the quantity of the dose, 
or the intervals at which it is administered. Thus, 
minute doses of certain medicines remove nausea 
and arrest vomiting ; whilst the same medicines 
given in larger doses, produce a contrary effect ; 
others, when taken in large quantities, act as pur- 
.gatives ; but, when administered in minute portions, 
check diarrhoea. Therefore^ since we are aware 
ihat medicines in minute doses possess peculiar quali- 
ties and powers^ it is our bounden duty to make our- 
selves acquainted with this mode of using them^ and 
it is imperative on us to forego such 7iotions and 
Principles (hereditary or acquired) as are founded 
■on prejudice. Minute doses alone can produce real 
medicinal action. Properly employed, they operate 
beneficially ; because, their action is confined to 
that part of the body which is the seat of disease, 
while the remainder of the system is not attacked 
or weakened ; if improperly employed, they cannot, 
from their minuteness, be very injurious. Large 
quantities of any materials, whether from the kitchen 
or the apothecary's shop, whether prepared by cooks [ 
Or prescribed by Greek, Arab, Indian, or Europeanj 
physicians, are not entitled to the name of medicines 'Ai 
they are to be considered nutriments^ when properlyjs 
used — when abused, they are poisons. [ti 

Instances frequently occur, wherein large doseJn 
of so-called medicine, appear to produce curativJe; 
effects upon the patients ; but, it is probable, thafi c! 
in some cases, the recovery is attributable to th re 
healing power of nature alone, which often repaii ed 
what bunglers have injured. [sff 



INTRODUCTION. XXvii 

Many persons cannot conceive, how minute doses, 
which are so small that they are supposed to be lost 
before they can reach the stomach, can produce 
any effect. They argue thus — As the stomach is 
the medium through which we obtain everything 
we require to preserve life, and by means of which 
those substances are assimilated that serve to com- 
pensate for the loss caused by the action of the 
vital functions, it requires to be deluged with- 
medicines, in order to produce any eflfect on the 
system. But, experience teaches us, that this is 
not necessary. Small particles of medicaments, dis- 
solved on the tongue by the saliva, on entering, 
the stomach, mix with the chyle ; and their effect 
is then conveyed by the electric or magnetic action- 
of the nerves, to the rem^ote parts on- which they 
are destined specifically to operate. 

1 advise every medical man to extract from the 
Materia Medica ( in the second volume ), a list 
of such remedies as he can procure ; and to arrange 
them alphabetically ( with the diseases and symptoms 
to which they are applicable ), that he may be able 
to refer to them readily. A pocket-book so arrang- 
ed, would be useful to families as well as phy- 
sicians. The remedies for different diseases (which 
are suggested in the first part of the second volume ) 
are intended for those physicians only, who, having 
time and opportunity, desire to continue the train of 
my experiments. I have arranged the various dis- 
v«j eases or symptoms in groups, many of them being 
closely allied. I have noticed in which cases the 
remedies proved beneficial, and, in short, I have point- 
ed out effects of any kind. I have also retained 
several untried remedies, and have marked them as 



es 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. 

such. Not knowing how long I might enjoy so favor- 
able an opportunity of prosecuting my experiments^ 
I was assiduous to determine, in the shortest possible 
time, the qualities of most of the substances I have 
mentioned ; consequently, I treated many of them 
superficially, not occupying myself long with any 
particular medicine. I preferred making a large 
collection of such substances as had been either 
long disused, or which were so new, that their 
qualities and efifects were unknown or unappreciated. 
Be it observed, most of my informations regard- 
ing the ^^c/5 of the medicines were gathered from 
the uncivilized natives of Asia, whose statements 
cannot always be relied on ; and that, notwithstand- 
ing my circumspection, mistakes may have occurred,, 
for which I can hardly be held answerable. Many 
ignorant persons took diflferent remedies at the same 
time (several different kinds of lozenges, which were 
of the same form and color ) in such cases I could 
not decide which medicines had produced the 
desired eff'ect. I have stated the eff'ect as attribut- 
able to different medicines, that they may be 
further tested. 

It also often happened, in the public hospital at 
Lahore, that people took medicine from me and 
from the Hakim at the same time, for the same 
patient ; simply because both were gratis : and: 
they took my medicines whilst they were under 
treatment by the Jerahs for abscess, ulcer, scrofula, 
&c., as if the interior had no connection with the 
exterior. 

In a hasty perusal of the Bengal Dispensatory^ 
Bengal Pharmacopeia^ Ainshes Materia- Medico, 
Jndica^ and the summary of East Indian drugs 



INTRODUCTION. ] ^ Xxix 

contained in the Great Exhibition Catalogue^ I 
observed a few inaccuracies and deficiencies, wiiich 
I have taken the liberty of correcting and supplying, 
in an Appendix to the second volume ; which I 
trust may not be found a useless Supplement. 

In closing this Introduction, I feel it incumbent 
on me to express my thanks to the Governor-General 
of India and the Board of Administration in the 
Punjabj for the Pension they have honored me with, 
in consideration of my long medical services to the 
Maharajh Runjeet Sing, and his successors. 

This Pension, added to the savings of a laborious 
life, secures me a moderate income in my retire- 
ment ; and enables me to devote the profits of this 
work, be they great or small, to the Educational 
establishments of the Saxon colony in Transyl- 
vania — my native country.. 



JOHN MARTIN HONIGBERGER, 
London^ J amiary^ 1852,. 



There is a land, of every land the pride, 
Beloved by Heaven, o'er all the world beside ; 
And in that land of Heaven's peculiar grace, 
The heritage of nature's noblest race, 
There is a Spot of earth supremely blessed, 
A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest. 
Where may that Land, tJiat Spot of earth be found ? 
Art thou a Man ? a Patriot ? look around — 
O thou shalt find, howe'er thy footsteps roam. 
That land Thy COUNTRY, and that Spot Thy Home ! 

Montgomery. 



•ADVENTURES, DISCOVERIES, EXPERIMENTS, 

AND 

HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 



"However agreeable it may be to return home after an 
'Absence of many years, and after having escaped many 
'dangers and endured many toils, to tread again the soil of 
one's native country, enriched with knowledge and ex- 
perience ; still, it is net without a feeling of emotion, that 
we recall those scenes of danger and fatigue to our recoHec- 
'tion. They flit past us like dissolving views, which appear 
only to vanish, yet still leave behind th^m deep traces of 
the past. 

It was a secret impulse, an inward voice, which urged me 
towards the East, where the first man lived of whom history 
makes mention, where culture was first practised, and 
where arts and sciences flourished ; where religion — that 
heavenly light — began to spread its rays. Patriam fuger-e, 
pet eg* e proficisci, 

I left my native town of Kronstadt, in Transylvania, in 
the spring of 1815. After having crossed Bukovina, Mol- 
davia, and Walachia ( where I remained above a year ), I 
arrived, in the autumn of 18 16, at Varna, on the Black Sea, 
whence I embarked for Constantinople. This was my first 
voyage. Being aware that the distance from Varna to 
Constantinople was short, I did not apprehend it could be 
attended with danger. On arriving at Varna, I was informed 
that several Turkish vessels were bound for Constantinople, 
lon one of which I embarked. Besides seventeen Arnauts 
'(Albanian-Turkish soldiers) a pretty French lady (from Jassy) 



2 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

was on board, with whom I conversed in Moldavian. On 
the approach of evening, we sailed from Varna, with a favor- 
able wind, in company with a Turkish fleet of about twenty 
small vessels. Fatigued by travelling, and lulled to sleep by 
the soothing motion of the vessel, I sank into the most 
charming reveries of the future ; when, towards midnight, 
I was aroused by the noise of the crew and passengers. A 
dreadful tempest from the north had overtaken us so sudden- 
ly, that there was not time to haul down the sails, which, in 
a few minutes, were shivered to pieces, and continued flap- 
ping and whistling in the storm. The mast itself did not 
escape the violence of the elements, but fell overboard with a 
crashing noise ; and the foaming waves gushed into the open 
vessel. The night was profoundly dark, illumined occasion- 
ally by flashes of Hghtnins:, accompanied with peals of thun- 
der.; hail and rain fell tempestuously ; the elements seemed to 
have conspired against us. Too late, I became aware of my 
error, and regretted having embarked in a heavily laden open 
vessel ; but, as all the other ships were of a like size, and 
similarly laden, I had no choice. By the lightning we could, 
now and then, perceive some of the vessels belonging to our 
squadron exerting their efforts to get through the foaming 
waves, sometimes riding on the watery mountains, at other 
times plunging between the gaping billows. We felt some 
consolation so long as we held them in sight ; but, they soon 
disappeared altogether. 

As our vessel had shipped a great deal of water, the 
sailors (few in number) were obliged to bail without inter- 
■mission, in which they were assisted by the passengers, 
while standing up to their knees in ice-cold water. Every 
•exertion was made to save the vessel ; and, at the commen- 
•cement of the tempest, when the mast went by the board, it 
was found advisable to lighten the vessel by throwing the 
*cargo into the deep. Notwithstanding th'rty-five years have 
elapsed, I vividly recollect their beginning with a large 
earthenware-stove which stood on the poop. They then 
threw overboard barrels of honey, bags of walnuts, &c., so 
that there remained only a quantity ofburduffes (oxhides, 



TIiIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 3 

^containing tallow) which could not be removed in consequence 
of their great weight. They were, therefore, obliged to cut 
the tallow with axes and large knives, and throw it piecemeal 
into the sea. This required hard labour, as the tallow was 
frozen. In this operation, our Greek captain (we had also a 
Turkish one) broke his yatagan (a. large Turkish knife); and 
upon seeing that the water in the hold continued to increase, 
he gave up all hope, and retired to his little cabin in despair. 
There he fell on the knees before the image of his Havayia 
(the Virgin), and left the vessel to the care of heaven and the 
Turkish captain. Happily the tempest did not last long ; 
the storm, which had come on so suddenly, left us with the 
same rapidity. Filled with hope, the day dawned upon us, 
when we descried the high mountains of Greece in the dis- 
tance. The first rays of the sun, whose appearance infused 
new life and fresh courage into our breasts, arose majestically 
from the horizon, and beaming brightly, diffused warmth 
through our limbs, previously benumbed with cold. With 
the aid of the mizen-mast, and favoured t>y a gentile breeze, 
towards the evening of the same day we approached the 
shore, where we cast anchor. At the break of day on the 
following morning we disembarked, and thanked heaven for 
our deliverance. From thence we walked up about ten miles, 
and arrived at Apollonia, a city once celebrated among the 
Greeks, but now of little importance, and bearing the name 
of Sissopoli, to which place the vessel was brought to be re- 
fitted, I here found my companions, the Arnauts, who had 
taken up their quarters in a large coffee-house, where they 
literally roasted their frozen feet at a coal fire. Although 
they discontinued this in consequence of my warnings, it was 
too late ; and I afterwards learned that several of them 
died in Constantinople of mortification. It was so hot in the 
coffee-house that I could not stay there long, and although 
I kept aloof from the stove, which was heated to redness, in 
order to avoid the sudden transition from cold to heat, I 
nevertheless caught a severe rheumatism in my feet, which tor- 
mented me for four months during the winter ; with the ap- 
proach of spring, however, it was radically cured. Amongst 
5 



4 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

the many remedies which I apph'ed, Lawsonia inermis 
proved the most effective. Every evening, before going to 
bed, I applied to the affected part the pulverized herb, with 
as much water as was sufficient to make a soft poultice. In 
the morning I washed it off, but the place continued red ; 
it is the same herb, indeed, with which the fair sex in the 
East stain their hands and feet. To strengthen my body, 
and especially my feet, I also used sea-bathing, which had a 
very good effect. From Sissopolis, we arrived, after a 
voyage of two days, at Constantinople. The view of the 
panorama of the Turkish capital and its environs, which we 
had on entering the Bosphorus, was so fine, and so imposing, 
that I felt compensated for all the dangers and troubles 
hitherto endured, and completely forgot them for the time, 
In winter (the middle of December, 1816) nature was still 
arrayed in green. This, however, did not last long ; for in 
the beginning of January a heavy fall of snow, three feet 
deep, took place, and it grew much colder than I expected 
to find it in Stambul. 

Before the expiration of the year 18 17, I had an oppor- 
tunity of continuing my journey towards Jerusalem, a city 
I was desirous of visiting. I was engaged as physician in 
ordinary to the Governor of Tocat, with whom I travelled 
into the interior of Asia Minor. However agreeable this 
journey might have been during the summer, it was very 
fatiguing during the winter, as almost every step cost us an 
effort, and we made our way with difficulty through the snow 
which covered the high mountains of Asia Minor. The 
caravan of the new governor, which whom I travelled, con- 
sisted of sixty horses and mules. One day we lost our 
way during a violent snow-storm in the mountains of 
Anatolia, and we had to pass a very bad night, till at last 
we got out of the deep snow, and found a village. On this 
journey I began to make a collection of antiques ( ancient 
Greek coins and engraved stones ), which at that time were 
easily obtained at the silversmiths, at a low price. I regret 
I did not then so well understand the value of them. From 
Tocat 1 travelled to Aleppo, passing through Kaisari, 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 5 

Tharsus, Adana, Alexandretta, and Antiochia. At Aleppo I 
fouDd many Germans among the numerous Europeans, and 
on that account would willingly have practised there for 
some time. Unhappily I fell sick on the road, as between 
Adana and Alexandretta I had to cross an unhealthy, low 
and marshy country, where malaria and marsh-fever 
were prevalent. In consequence I was attacked with a 
disorder called sub-acute inflammation in the spleen, which 
afterwards turned into an obstinate quartan ague, of which 
I got cured only when I had left Aleppo ; and that, I 
suppose, was the reason why I could not get an extensive 
medical practice. A physician ( was the saying ) who is not 
able to cure himself, can never cure others. 

After a two months' stay on the Syrian coast, during 
which time I enjoyed the best health, I tried to get back 
again to Aleppo ; but at the last station before reaching 
Aleppo I caught the fever, on the same spot where it left 
me, and curious enough I found, in my journal, it happen- 
ed on the same day it would have befallen me had I not left 
Aleppo at all. Thus it continued to be my constant com- 
panion during all my stay there ; but as soon as I took my 
leave of that place, it deserted me, without having been ex- 
pelled by any remedy. I had full ten months to suffer by 
that tiresome guest. The experience I had myself, agrees 
with that sentence, " Febris autumnalis est longa non le- 
thalis." During these ten months I got but few cessations 
of my illness, and then only at short intervals. One may 
infer from this, that obstinate diseases, defying every medi- 
cal assistance, can only be cured by travelling, I mean to 
say ( change of air ) by removing from the country where 
the disease is caught. 

Subsequently I had the opportunity of effecting several 
cures in Tripoli — where these marshy fevers are endemi- 
cal — with 'a compound mentioned in the second volume 
of my work, containing arsenic and bitter almonds ( prus- 
sic acid ) in minu«:e doses, which was eminently efficacious 
where sulphate of quinine failed, 

I quitted Aleppo before the fat^il catastrophe of the 



6 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

earthquake, which caused so many disasters ; the vil!"ag«^ 
called Jisershol, on the river (between Latachia and 
Aleppo ), was entirely destroyed. Following the Syrian 
coast, I crossed Latachia, Tripoli, Beyrout, Seida, Sur, Acre, 
Nazareth, Jerusalen], and Bethlehem, and visited the Holy 
Sepulchre, &;c., in the autumn of the year 1819. From Jafifa 
I embarked for Damietta and went up the Nile as far as 
Cairo. At that period an Armenian from Tocat, named 
Giovanni Bozzari, enjoyed the title of First Physician, 
under the superintendence of whom I obtained employment in 
the fortress. Giovanni Bozzari pursued his medical studies at 
Constantinople, in the house of a Venetian doctor named 
Bozzari. Availing himself of the name of his professor, 
when in Egypt, Mahomed Ali, at that time a Binbashi 
( chief of 1,000 men ), protected him, as he had been welh 
advised by Bozzari when he applied for his assistance. 
Subsequently, when Mahomed AH was promoted to the dig- 
nity of a Pasha, Bozzari was invested with the title of privy 
counsellor, and occupied at the same, time the post of physi-- 
cian in ordinary : Cui fortuna favet, sponsa petita manet ! 

At that period ( 1820 — 1821) Mahomed' Ali despatch- 
ed an army to Upper Egypt, under the command of his 
second son, Ismail Pasha ; his elder son, Tossoon Pasha, 
having died by the plague some years previous. I was one 
of the first among the physicians engaged for that expedi- 
tion ; but whilst they were preparing for the march, the 
plague broke out, which induced me to give up that fati- 
guing and perilous journey, cede my post to another, and 
go back to Syria. Some time after, I learned that the ex- 
pedition miscarried, that none of those ten or twelve physi- 
cians who accompanied the army had returned, and that* 
Ismail Pasha himself had been massacred. 

At Cairo I was so fortunate as to be very successful in 
my cures. Among others, 1 attended a merchant of Con- 
stantinople, a Greek, who was greatly afflicted with the 
stone during a period of forty years, so that he was will- 
ing to undergo an operation. I cured him of his complaint 
by administering to him ( for a period of six wcsks ) diluted 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 7 

muriatic acid. More recently I tried the same remedy with 
other patients for the malady, but without any success. I 
deduce from this, that the substances of the stones ia 
the latter cases were not the same as with my patient at 
Cairo, and that muriatic acid has not always the quality of 
dissolving stony concretions. Not finding any dissolving 
medicine that would act universally, I was obliged to effect 
the cure of stone in the bladder by an operation with the in- 
strument. In Syria there were also Arabs, known as stone- 
operators, who adhered to the old method of Celsus, i.e., to 
bring the stone down by introducing the fingers into the 
rectum, and cutting it out through the perinoeum ; but I 
preferred the apparatus altus, where the stone is cut out from 
the bladder, through the pyramidal muscle of the belly, 
which produced a very great sensation, and obtained for me 
the name of a skilful operator. The first operation for the 
stone I made was on Mount Lebanon. Afterwards I per- 
formed similar operations at Damascus, Bagdad, Persia, In- 
dia, and even at Bokhara, as the reader will find. 

In the year 1822, I began to vaccinate in Syria, with a 
lymph received from Aleppo, which acted well. Two parti- 
cular cases which occurred at the villages in the neighbour- 
hood of Tripoli (Syria) deserve especially to be mentioned 
here. The small-pox raged epidemically in those places, in a 
horrible manne r, killing adults as well as infants, without any 
distinction. The use of vaccination was as little known in 
Syria, as it was in Europe before the time of Jenner, and I 
was just in the centre, or rather in the focus of that epidemi- 
cal disease. A widow having two children, one son aad a 
daughter, the latter of whom she loved and idolized, insist- 
ed upon only permitting the male to be inoculated, and if it 
should prove successful she would allow the operation to be 
performed on her fondled darling, the daughter. Accordingly 
I only vaccinated the son. When I visited him, after a lapse 
of eight days, I found the mother in despair, her daughter 
having during the interval died of the small-pox, whilst the 
boy was quite well, with large pustules like pearls on his 
arms ; she regretted, but too late, not having followed ray 



^ THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

advice, and looked upon the event as a punishment from 
heaven. In another village, not far from the above-men- 
tioned, I had to attend a whole family of eight persons, old 
and young, who were vaccinated all at the same time. After 
eight days, upon calling on them, I found a young man of 
about twenty years of age, in agony, in consequence of con- 
fluent small-pox, which eruption had taken place on the 
evening of the vaccination. He was the only person in the 
house on whom the vaccination had failed, on account of the 
man having carried on his shoulders a dead body that was 
infected with the natural small-pox ; thus the lymph failed, 
by the counter-agency of the contagion. The rest of the 
family enjoyed excellent health, and were saved through the 
medium of vaccination. 

There is an opinion prevalent, that vaccination will only 
keep off the small-pox for a period of twenty years. I was 
(if I am not mistaken) vaccinated in my native country, 
In the year 1800, with such an excellent lymph (not 
crust), that I treated a great many cases of small-pox, 
such as lately occurred in the years 1848 and 1849, at 
Lahore, without being affected by the disease myself, 
and that without having been a second time vaccinated. 
Nevertheless, if the second or third vaccination is of no use, 
it does no injury to the constitution. In one year I got 
from English physicians, lymph of quite different quali- 
ties, some from Umbala, and some from Delhi ; the former 
was of a good quality, but the latter was of a very bad 
one, as the pustules sprang rapidly up and vanished in a 
very short time ; neither was the areola of them red 
enough, which accounted for many of those whom I vaccinat- 
ed catching the small-pox. I therefore discontinued to 
vaccinate with the matter from Delhi, after I had receiv- 
ed some of a better quality from Umbala. 

At Tripoli, I met with the then new Governor Bar- 
ber, who although of very low birth, had managed to 
get possession of the fortress, and afterwards of the town 
itself, by fraud and cunning. He was a short-necked 
man, thickset, inclined to apoplexy (Habitus apoplecticus). 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, 9 

and, in consequence of his sedentary life, was troubled 
with hemorrhoids and obstructions. He consulted me, 
and when I ordered him to apply a clyster, he measured 
me wildly with his eyes, as if I had ordered him 
some dangerous remedy ; I repented having done 
so. I remembered afterwards, that the Arabian physici- 
ans, although aware of the eflficacy of clysters, as they 
are recommended in their medical books, seldom apply 
them, and only in cases where all other remedies fail, 
as they consider it as a last resource ; in a country 
where pederasty is in vogue, it is disgraceful to acknow- 
ledge that fact. At his request for a proper remedy to 
be taken by the mouth, I prepared for him the well 
known aloetic dinner-pills, mentioned in the second vol- 
ume of this work, from which he found great benefit. 

Besides these pills, I ordered him to observe the fol- 
lowing rules : Post coenam stabis, vel possus mille 
meabis, or — 

" After dinner, sit a while ; 
After supper, walk a mile." 

« 

For several years I spent the cold seasons In the 
maritime towns on the Syrian coast, at Tripoli or Bey- 
rout, where the winters are only rainy ; but I passed 
the hot summer-months in the most agreeable regions 
of Mount Lebanon. At Araba, not far from Seyda, I 
made the acquaintance of that original person, Lady 
Hester Stanhope, who called herself Queen of Palmyra. 
I was told that she ordered a herd of goats to be 
killed, and buried, and paid the people who did so, well, 
only because a few of them were scabby, and she 
thought by that expedient to prevent epidemical diseas- 
es, which might occur by their eating the flesh, or 
drinking the milk. Not far from Tripoli, there lay at 
the foot of the Lebanon, in a very romantic valley, a 
village called Mesrut-ul-Toofah (apple-district), where I was 
requested to attend some fever patients. My friends advised 



10 TKIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

me not to go there, as in their opinion an epidemical 
disease was raging at that place ; but I did not listen 
to their warnings as I wished to be useful to those 
people who had implored my assistance, and at the same 
time to extend my experience. When I was near the 
village, I saw a great many Maronite girls (Christians^ 
coming back from the well, with pitchers on their heads, 
each of them holding an onion in their hands, at which they 
frequently smelled. 

The epidemical disease had the character of a Synochus, 
and several persons had died suddenly, which caused great 
alarm among the inhabitants. The silk gathering was 
just ended, and I found the diseased were located in 
miserable, low houses, deprived of fresh air ; I thought 
it advisable to cause them to be removed from their babita- 
ations, and brought into the manufactories, where previously 
the silk worms had been ; and the result of my treatment 
was, that none of my patients died of that disease. I was 
conducted from Mesrut-ul-Toofah, to a place a little 
farther up the Lebanon, to Atto, where the former French 
interpreter, Isaac Torbei, was confined to his bed with 
Angina, and was unable to articulate, in spite of all his 
efiforts to do so. I examined his throat, and found an abscess 
therein, which I opened immediately ; by which operation 
my patient was able to talk instantly, and after a few days 
he entirely recovered. 

From Aito, I was brought to Kannobin, to the resi- 
dence of the Maronitan patriarch, where the Bishop Mootran 
Seman lay very ill, Kannobin is situated on a declivity, 
from whence a beautiful view is obtained of the valley. 
It is by no means a town, as the Dictionnaire Encyclop- 
edique Ferancaise (second edition) erronously asserts, it 
being merely a convent. There is a curious custom 
attached to this country, and in most places of Asia. A 
physician being called on to attend a sick person, it is 
first arranged as to how much he will require for curing 
the same ; upon that arrangement being completed, the 
physician receives one moity of the sum agreed upon, and 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IX THE EAST. II 

'upon the recovery of the patient, he receives the balance, 
which includes the cost of medicine. 

Having arrived at Kannobin, I found the bishop suffer- 
ing from nervous fever, in a state of insensibility. After a 
strict examination, I entertained but little hopes of his 
recovery. Kis numerous relatives, standiiig round his bed, 
appeared to have resigned all hope previous to my arrival. 
I agreed v/ith the brothers of the bishop as to the amount 
they were to pay me for my attendance, the half of which 
I received in advance, for the medicines to be delivered, 
the other half to be paid after the recovery of the 
patient, from whose own hands I should receive it, according 
to the above-mentioned custom. All was legally signed by 
the parties and witnesses. I caused the troublesome 
spectators to withdraw, as by their thronging around the 
bed they occasioned disturbance and confusion, and only 
permitted four of them to remain as attendants. Then I 
was able to reflect, and found that the patient had been 
wrongly treated by his former physicians, and so reduced 
to a most pitiable condition, 

They had copiously bled him unnecessarily, and, led by 
a false diagnosis, they had prescribed him a quantity of de- 
coctions and purgatives. I learned from the attendants, 
that four days previously the patient v/as constipated, which 
occasioned him to fall into a state of insensibility. I found 
it necessary to commence my treatment with a lenitive 
clyster, which did not fail to have its good effect ; I after- 
wards ordered the room to be aired, sprinkled the patient's 
face with vinegar mixed with rose-water, and ordered his 
feet to be warmed by friction. 

At ten in the evening I applied a blister on the nape, 
and administered a compound opiate powder, which was 
given in a strong dose. I put it into his mouth, rinsed it 
from his tongue, after which he began to perspire, and 
passed a tolerably quiet night. The beneficial result was 
owing to the properly proportioned mixture of the opium, 
as I afterwards experienced in many cases, whilst a lesser 
"dose ( I — 2 grains opium ) made the malady worse, By 
6 



12 TniRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

this process the patient was saved. On the day of the re- 
covery of the bishop, I had an opportunity to cure another 
patient, which occasioned a great sensation. The sexton of 
the patriarch was troubled with a tertian-ague. It was the 
fever day, and the patient complained of feeling dizzy, want 
of appetite, a bitter taste in his mouth ; he looked very ill, 
and the white of his eyes was rather of a yellow colour. 
I ordered him an emetic, he vomited, and a long tape-worm 
was expelled, which I drew until it broke. On giving him 
a second dose of solution of tartar-emetic, it operated, and 
caused the ejection of the rest of the worm by an evacuation. 
I ordered the pieces of the ejected worm to be washed. I 
measured them afterwards, and they were fifty-two yards 
long. I found among them three heads, and I concluded 
that three tape-worms were there, consequently the denomina- 
tion of solitaris is a wrong one. It was the broad tape- 
worm. I kept the pieces in spirit ; but it was no extra- 
ordinary novelty for those people, as the disease of the tape- 
worm is very common on the Lebanon. Whilst I was measur- 
ing the tape-worm, the old patriarch Hanna stepped in, 
and asked me, with a smile, if I knew Bonaparte ? I answer- 
ed that I knew him by name only. He continued ; people 
arriving just now from Tripoli, bring the news, that Bona- 
parte has died in the English prison. Then that great 
genius has coma to an end, said I, whose memory will^for 
ever be revered in France ! 

The inhabitants of the Lebanon are of opinion that the 
frequent disease of tape-worm in their country is caused 
by their eating raw flesh, and afterwards drinking 
brandy immoderately, which may indeed be considered as 
a secondary cause. I ascribe the principal cause of the 
frequent appearance of this disease on the Lebanon, to the 
fact, that the poor people of that country, who are mostly 
affected with it, are living in rooms where they are breeding 
silk worms, also sleeping in the same apartments, and breath- 
ing the noxious air of the rotten substances and putrefied 
mulberry leaves which serve as food to these worms. I 
cherish this opinion so much the more, as the root of the 



TinRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, I*. 



^' 



white mulberry-tree is considered, accordinj^ to the Homceo- 
pathic principle, as a worm-destroying: substance (antliel- 
minticum). Those people have a particular method of cur- 
ing the tape-worm when it becomes annoying by unpleasant 
symptoms. They take, early in the morning, L;cfore break- 
fast, a small piece of common soap, enveloped in the skin 
of a fig ; afterwards, they roast a piece of fat meat on a 
fire of charcoal, in order to coax the worm (as they believe) 
to come up from the intestines to the stomach ; they chew 
the roast meat, without swallowing the spittle or the juice. 
Believing the worm to be in the stomach, which they think 
they feel afterwards, they drink a good draught of vinegar, 
or even strong spirits, stopping their nostrils, which is 
supposed to aftect the worm (perhaps also the man) 
with intoxication, by means of which the worm is 
driven to the lower parts of the intestines, and ultimately 
ejected by a brisk purge, such as in a civilized country 
would only be employed by a veterinary surgeon. If the 
worm is in the stomach, then the next process is that of 
administering tartar-emetic (as I have previously alluded to), 
and thus preventing the necessity of using spirits, and 
the drastic purgative. But if it is probable that the pur- 
gative will, together with the worm, eject also the mucus, 
then it is advisable to administer, a few days after the 
ejection of the worm, the purgative, but without the assist- 
ance of spirits, or vinegar. 

Not far from Kannobin, below the highest summits of 
the Lebanon, covered with eternal snow, beneath which 
the well-known cedar-trees grow, are the villages of Eden 
and Besherri, where I succeeded in effecting many cures 
in the summer of 1821. 

The chiefs of the Maronites and Druses (Emir Beshir 
and Sheikh Beshir) on arriving at Besherri to meet the 
rebels, applied to me for medical assistance ; and at a 
later period I was invited to their residences (Tidin and 
Muktara), where I practised for some time, so that I livedt 
for several years very agreeably, enjoying the mos 
beautiful and romantic views of the Holy Laad (Palestine)* 



14 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

At Besherri I tried vaccination, but I found that the' 
inhabitants were not affected by the operation, the vaccine 
matter producing no pustules, and I was told that none 
of them caught the small-pox, because their cows have 
sometimes the cow-pox, the origin of which is caused by 
the change of climate. The inhabitants of the higher 
regions pass the winter, together with their cattle, in the 
plains of Sgorta, not far from Tripoli, Hence I infer that the 
inhabitants of Besherri, through being in continual contact 
with their cattle, as cows, &c,, become infected with the 
disease, and are thus preserved from human contagion. A 
quite distinct disease, occurring frequently on the Lebanon, 
is the so-called habbet-ul-kei, which is a sort of gangrenous 
ulcer, but very different from the endemic sore at Aleppo 
and Bagdad, called Butone d' Aleppo, an ulcer which seems- 
to have a preference for the cheeks of fair young ladies,-, 
lasting twelve months, and leaving an ugly scar, but not 
dangerous. The habbet-ul-kei, on the contrary, appears 
as a small pustule, is very acute, and endangers life ; it 
occurs in the interior as well as on the exterior parts of 
the body, for which reason it is often difficult to be recog- 
nized ; but as soon as it is recognized, the healing of it may 
instantly be effected with the cautery, be it internal or 
external That is the reason why, on the Lebanon, so 
many children are seen on whose forehead the cauterium 
actuale was applied as a preventive. If this ulcer appears 
on the surface, for instance on the face, where an inflamed 
pimple arises, which is at the beginning of a red or bluish 
color, and afterwards becomes black, like a carbuncle, then 
life is in danger, if not attended to betimes, z e., by burning 
and destroying it withJa red-hot iron ; for that reason it is 
called habbet-ul-kei, that is to say — " ulcer to be burned." It 
is said, that the bursting of the pimple being heard at the 
moment of the operation, is a good omen of the success 
of the cure. 

In the Agosta, in the province of Kesroan, there occur- 
red a case, which rendered me really ashamed of our imper- 
fect medical knowledge. 



THIRTY- I-IVE. YEARS IN THE EAST; IS. 

Iwas called on to jjive my assistance on the commence- 
ment of an acute inflammation of the eyes to a lady of the 
first family, called the Sheikh Khoasni (nobility of ancient 
descent), where I tried the antiphlo^jistic plan in its full 
extent, namely :- bleeding, blistering, leeches, calomel, 
emetic tartar ( in minute doses), purgatives {vie, senna, 
manna, salt, &c. ), Dover's powders, different colly- 
riums prepared from corrosive sublimate, plumbi acet., 
laudanum, camphor, rosewater, &c., without any positive 
result. One morning I found the lady a great deal better 
which I naturally ascribed to the good effects of my treat- 
ment. " No," said my patient, " I do not owe my conva- 
lescence to your remedies, but to the shoemaker Ibrahim; 
he called on us yesterday evening, and on viewing my sore 
eyes, he recognized it to be the habbet-ul-kei. He applied 
immediately the red-hot iron, and since that moment I am 
a great deal better and have enjoyed also a quiet night." 
I requested her to send for the zisiad (master) Ibrahim, 
which she accordingly did, I asked him how he could 
know that the inflammation of the eyes was caused by the 
habbet-ul-kei ? He ansv;ered me, that it could be re- 
cognised by the following circumstances : — 

1. Bleeding and all other treatments remain useless. 

2. The patient has offensive breath, the spittle is tough 

and stringy. 

3. There is a local burning pain, tormenting the patient day 

and night, which (according to his assertion) is the 
surest symptom of the kei (burning). 

Beside this, Ibrahim understood but little of other diseas- 
es ; nevertheless, no one should apply to him the Latin 
proverb, Ne sutor ultra crepidam (Let not the shoemaker go 
beyond his last). 

The cauterium actuale was applied also to this lady, on 
the forehead, her hair having been previously cut very short. 
There is no doubt, that the effect of the red-hot iron is 
more violent and efficacious than that of a blister, and 
cannot be replaced by the latter, wherefore the Arabs apply 
it to men and animals, very often at the present day. 



l6 TlilKTY-FrV'E YEARS IN THE EAST. 

as in ancient times ; our contemporary medical men itT 
Europe make but little use of it, probably because they are 
afraid of the violent pains inseparable from such operation^ 
but this only produces the healing effect. 

At Tripoli ( Syria ) I met with a very disagreeable in- 
cident by my improvidence, from which I learned some- 
experience, and for that reason I will give the reader some 
account of it. Being an enthusiastic sportsman from my 
earliest age, I pursued some ducks in a marshy ground, 
where I remained for a couple of hours. It was in the win- 
ter season, on a lonely and desert place, about five miles 
from the town, and not far from the sea-coast. 

I was quite alone, and so intent on the pursuit, that I 
observed, only a short time before sunset, that it was high 
time to return to my abode. I left the marsh, sat down on 
its border to dress myself ; but to my astonishment my 
feet were motionless, stiff, and paralysed so that it 
was impossible, without assistance, to get on my 
pantaloons and boots. But my terror increased, when 
I reflected that I was in the desert, far from every human 
being ! What will become of me, thought I ? Must I perish 
by the frost of the night ; or must I become a prey to the 
wild beasts on their nightly wanderings? Similar ideas 
rose in my imagination, and I was in a desperate situa- 
tion. 

But sometimes, at the moment when our calamity is 
highest, our delivery is nearest. Having committed that 
imprudent step of going into the marsh when I was fatigued 
and excited, I felt nothing as long as I was wading about ; 
but now, as the sueirp air came in contact with my body, I felt 
the consequences of the evil I bad brought on myself. 
Against that paraplegy, there was only one remedy, 
namely : — to produce a perspiration oq the whole body. 
But how was I to effect this ? " Necessity is the mother 
of invention." I grasped my cloth pantaloons, and began 
to rub my feet with all my strength, until my hands got 
weary, and in the meantime my whole body became 
covered with perspiration. To my great satisfaction, I 



TUIKTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 1 7 

perceived that my feet began to become flexible, and so I 
continued the operation, and succeeded so far as to be able 
to put on my pantaloons and boots, and walk slowly towards 
my abode. There I arrived very late, ordered a warm bath 
to be prepared, and after half-an-hour's bathing went to 
bed, having previously drunk a glass of punch prepared 
with tea, which produced a good effect, and thus I fell 
asleep. In the morning, when I awoke, .my legs were 
restored to their former activity. 

At the same period, while I was private physician to 
the English consul at Tripoli, there happened an ex- 
traordinary case. An organic defect of a young woman 
in labor required a Ca-sarian operation to be made on her 
body, and I was appointed to perform it ; but the Greek 
bishop refused to give his consent thereto, because that 
operation was an uncommon one, and I could not guarantee 
her life. Even after the death of the poor woman, wife 
of Georgius Jani, the bishop again opposed the operation, by 
which the infant might have been saved. I and my friends, 
the twin brothers Katzifliss (scarcely twenty years of age, one 
of whom was Austrian, the other English consul ) often 
regretted the circumstance. At Bagdad there happened 
the following case : — the wife of an Armenian curate 
having been for eight months with child, had died in 
consequence of a scald. On both sides of the belly of 
the deceased a certain motion was visible for a long time, 
which caused some people to believe that she was about 
to bring forth twins, which they wished to save. They 
sent for me, but, to my grief, they came when all assis- 
tance was too late. I cite this unhappy accident of the 
poor woman, that it my serve as an example to those 
people who deal in spirits and other combustible articles, 
and as a warning to them to be cautious in their manage- 
ment The above-mentioned w,oman went upstairs late in 
the night, with a candle in her hand, and entered a room, to 
pour some brandy from a damejane ( a large glass jar, cover- 
ed with straw ). Keeping the light too near to the spirits, 
they caught fire. Instead of covering the mouth of the 



■18 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

jar, to extinguish the fl^me, she permitted the damejane 
to fall on the ground, and, sprinkled as siie was with the 
burning spirits, she fell a victim to the fl imes. Some time 
afterwards, she was found in the dark room, in a fainting 
state, amidst the ashes of her clothes. 

From Tripoli I went, by order, to Akar, in the moun- 
tains, to attend the Prince AH Essat, who, together with his 
numerous family (wife, brother, children, and slaves ) were 
infected with the venereal disease, which, although appear- 
ing under different forms and complications, may be ranged 
in the ci->ss of syphilis secundaria. At that time I knew no 
better remedy for that complaint than corrosive sublimate 
combined with salmiac, accompanied by decoctions of sarsa- 
parilla, china-root, gujac wood, &c. 

Whilst I v/as at Akar, it was reported that Abdula, 
Pasha of Acre, had commenced war against the Pasha of 
Damascus, in consequence of a dispute, and that he had sent 
troops, the greater part of them Christians ( Maronites from 
the Lebanon) and Druses, under the command of Emir 
Beshir, towards the holy city of Damascus ( Bab-ul-Kaba, or 
•entrance to the Sanctuary of Mecca \ and that the inhabi- 
tants of Damascus had been defeated. The Sultan des- 
patched immediately five pashas to Acre, in order to bring 
the heads of Abdula Pasha, of Emir Beshir, and of the new 
governor at Tripoli, the above-mentioned Barber, for hav- 
ing taken part in the war, by sending his own troops to 
join the main army. AH Essat Bek took advantage of the 
moment, having his partisans at Tripoli ; he came down 
from Akar, blockaded and bombarded that town, and forced 
it to capitulate. Meanwhile, Barber betook himself to the 
citadel, in which he surrendered under certain conditions. 
The five pashas arrived so suddenly, that Emir Beshir 
had only time to escape, and embark between Seida and 
Berout, in a French vessel, which conveyed him to Egypt, 
where, by the interference of Mahomet AH Pasha, he 
obtained from the Sultan his own pardon and that of 
Barber and his superior, Abdula Pasha, which, by the by, 
cost each of them an immense sum of gold, At London 



THlRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. jg 

5 was recently told, by the missionary, Dr. J. Wolf, that 
Abdula Pabha and the Emir Beshir were/esiding at Constan- 
tinople, but since then the public journals have announced the 
death of the latter, ;and that one ^of his sons had embraced 
Mahomedanism. 

I was present at the siege of Acre, and found an 

opportunity of employing myself in surgical attendance 

and operations ; as the garrison used to make nightly 

sallies, and do a great deal of mischief. I had a dozen 

native surgeons, or rather barbers ( jerahs ), as assistants, 

to whom I gave theoretical and practical information. 

Tigers are rarely to be met with on Mount Lebanon, 
yet during my stay an order was issued by Emi^- Beshir, 
that the muzzle of every slain tiger should be sent to the 
government, in order to prevent the use of it as a poisonous 
drug. This strange order induced me, when at Lahore, to 
•examine its virtue, the results of which I refer to in the 
second volume of this work, under the denomination of 
Tigrineum. 

My passion for antiquities prompted me to undertake a 
voyage to Alexandria ; accordingly I made a trip, which 
was attended with a very fortunate result. I went on to 
Damascus, via Haspeye and Rasheye, from whence I conti- 
nued my journey to Homs and Hama, in Syria, with the 
caravan of hajjees ( pilgrims ). At the latter places I 
purchased a considerable collection of old coins, in crold. 
silver and copper, as also several engraved gems. I made 
my way back to Beyrout, via Akar and Tripoli, where I em- 
barked on board an English vessel for Alexandria. This 
short journey had also its peculiar adventures ; for it happen- 
ed in a period when, after the revolution in Greece, the 
Mediterranean was infested by numerous pirates. In the 
evening of the same day on which we lost sight of the 
snowy summits of the Lebanon, we discovered, by the light 
of the moon, that we were surrounded by five ships-of-war. 
Our captain was, in insulting language, summoned by 
the respective captains of these vessels to come on board 
their ships, so that he was at a loss which of them to 
7 



30 THIRTY-nVK YEARS IN THE EAST. 

choose. He therefore remained in his own vessel, until some 
soldiers were sent on board our ship to fetch him. The 
visitors, who were but little acquainted with politeness, 
set about carrying away some purses filled with crowns 
( dollars ), during which operation a quarrel arose among 
them, and we saw them on the point of beginning a fight, 
as their swords, knives, and pistols were already held forth for 
the assault ; but happily, no blood was shed. It was the 
patrol of Mahomed AH making the round. They took 
our captain with them, and examined his papers, con- 
veying him from one ship to another, which operation 
lasted four hours. As this happened in the vicinity of 
Cyprus, the captain made his complaint there to the 
British consul, and, on arriving at Alexandria, he immediate- 
ly jreceived satisfaction, as an imperative mandate was for- 
warded, and the patrol recalled. 

At Cyprus, I called on my friend the French ex-Consul 
of Tripoli, Mr. Reynold, where I met with a kind reception, 
af he required my medical assistance. I had also, during 
my short stay at Alexandria, the opportunity of curing a 
countryman of mine, a Hungarian, who had been many 
years afflicted with ulcers on his legs. As a testimony of 
his gratitude, he sent oie a letter, from which I copy the 
following lines: — 

"May this serve you as a proof of my gratitude and 
sincerest thanks, for the complete restoration of my health; 
with the request that you will not, when far distant, forget 
your true and affectionate friend, 

"Attanas Keptenak." 

AUxandrta in Egypt^ 
April I, 1823. 

At this time the plague was raging dreadfully at Alexan- 
dria. The direction of the hospital was committed to a 
Jewish doctor, whose name was Marpurgo. Among the 
infected, there was an Italian, named Bellmondo, an 
apothecary by profession, who died the day after he was 
attacked with the plague, The people, on this occasion, 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 21 

Skid: ''/I povero Bellmondo,^ ndV altro mondor Here also 
I had an opportunity of observing the course of the plague, 
I did not, however, remain long in this place, but returned 
to Syria. Unfortunately, the vessel I embarked in was 
an old Danish one, leaky in every corner, so that the crew 
were obliged to pump day and night. After my return 
from Alexandria, 1 fixed my abode on the eastern side 
of the Lebanon, and began to practise in a little town named 
Sahli, beautifully situated in the proximity of the valley of 
Balbeck, where the famous ruins of the temple of the sua 
(Heliopolis), notwithstanding the attacks of time, rise from 
the ground like rocks, and are admired by travellers, as one 
of the most remarkable monuments of antiquity. As I 
was living in the neighbourhood, I accompanied the two 
Prussian naturalists, Drs. Hemprich and Ehrenberg, at 
that time on their way towards Balbeck. The latter is 
the celebrated naturalist at present in Berlin. From 
Sahli I went to Damascus ( which I had formerly passed 
through), in order to pursue there the practice of ray 
profession. At that period there was living in the Capuchin 
convent, a monk, named Padre Tomaso, who used to 
perform vaccination ; and besides that, professed the 
medical art. But the following amusing story may serve ai 
an illustratfon of the system he adopted. A goldsmith of 
middle age, a Catholic, came to me one day, asking for 
an Aphrodisiacum ; he confessed he had impaired his 
bodily strength by improper indulgences, to such a degree 
that he could not perform his conjugal duty ; and he 
added, that he was in a very distressing situation, for 
his nuptials were to be celebrated on the following Sun- 
day. I expressed my willingness to comply with his 
wishes, but finding probably the price of my medicine 
too high, he left me, and repaired to Padre Tomaso, 
hoping to get his medicine gratis. On Monday, after the 
wedding, at the break of day, Father Tomaso entered my 
room quite embarrassed, and asked me for my advice, as 
the goldsmith was constipated, and in great pain, in con- 
sequence of the large doses of Cantharidei which he had 



22 THIRTY- FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

administered to him on the eve of his nuptials. Although 
somewhat moved v^ith compassion, I could not help- 
laughing at this account, and I desired to see the pa- 
tient, whereupon he told me that, after having read mass, 
he would come and conduct me to him. My lodgings be- 
ing opposite the convent, he very soon returned, and we- 
repaired to the residence of the newly-married pair. It 
was one of the largest Christian houses in Damascus,, 
and the family of the goldsmith was one of the richest of 
that country. In the large court-yard and in the saloon^ 
through which I had to pass, I saw a great many hand- 
some ladies, and not being shy, they displayed their 
jewels and other ornaments, because I was come with »' 
priest, and consequently appeared to be also a Christian,, 
in spite of my Turkish costume. In a corner of a large 
room, I found the unfortunate bridegroom cowering and 
lamenting over his pains ; he had only one servant with 
him. He told me he had taken only a third part of 
the majoon (electuary) which Padre Tomaso had given- 
bim, but that, instead of its producing the desired effect,, 
he was tormented with pains that were no longer sup- 
portable. I immediately gave him a few pills (a com- 
pound of opium, camphor, and ipecacuanha), and also- 
ordered him to take almond-milk, ad libitum, which did 
him a great deal of good, and I afterwards effected the 
cure of his original complaint. 

The aforesaid Father Tomaso (a Piedmontese, I believe) 
is the same individual who created a great sensation in 
Europe, som^ years ago, by his sudden disappearance 
from bis monastery, where it was supposed he was murder- 
ed by the Jews, on which occasion some hundreds were; 
massacred at Damascus. 

According to the annual custom, there came from 
Constantinople, the Surra-Emini (leader of the pilgrims), 
with thousands of Musselmans, who united themselves at 
Damascus with the pilgrims coming from Bagdad and 
Persia. At the expiration of the Ramazan (Lent), the 
Pasha of Damascus s^i off for the desert, where a great 



THIRTY- FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 23 

fair is held at an insignificant fortress (Muzerib), at which 
a larcje quantity of articles are sold and purchased, and 
whither also the Arab chiefs, of different tribes, from the desert, 
bring their goods, principally horses, for sale. At that time,, 
the Pasha and the Surra-Emini pay them money, and distri- 
bute state dresses among them, for which they undertake to 
provide the pilgrims, going to and coming from Mecca, 
with the required number of camels, without which the road 
through the desert would be impracticable. 

I accompanied the Pasha both going and returning. 
On my arrival in Damascus, I found a medical man, 
Mr. H. I. De Turck, now at Ghent, who was come from 
Paris, where he had studied medicine, and the Arabic 
language. Shortly after, I received a letter from Bagdad, 
from Mr. Anton Swoboda, a native of Hungary, who 
had a warehouse there for Bohemian glass, under the 
firm of Ign. Zahn and Company, of Pesth and Aleppo ; it 
was in the latter place that I made his acquaintance. 

He informed me in that letter, that Dohud-Pasha wished 
to engage a European physician and surgson, and advised me 
to accept his offers. I communicated the contents of this 
letter to Mr. Henri De Turck, proposing to him to undertake 
the journey with me, to which he agreed. At that time there 
were two caravans, a great and a small one (galat), the latter 
of only ten camels, ready to start immediately for Bagdad. 
But as the former, for the sake of food and water, was 
obliged to take a roundabout way, lasting full six weeks, 
whilst the latter, by following the direct road through 
the desert, would occupy only two weeks in the journey,, 
we sent our luggage by the greater caravan, and went, with 
our two camels, with the galat, which consisted now of 
twelve camels. We were obliged to take with us provi- 
sions for about ten or twelve days — some clothes, and a few 
medicines. Each camel was provided with two goat-skins, 
to carry water, as we arrived only every third or fourth 
day at watering-places. Each camel had also its driver, 
who sat behind, and his fiirs, by the way, were full of vermin. 

Kirkor, aa Armeaian merchant, from Bagdad, who led 



24 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

this galat, advised us to leave beliind every kind of weapofTj, 
as he suspected that the journey would be a dangerou* 
one, ^undertaken thus at random. He added, that if wa 
met, by accident, the Arabs in the desert, and they found 
us to be armed, they might become suspicious ; whilst If 
we passed them as poor hajjees (pilgrims), saluting thera 
with " Selara alekim," we might be saluted with their 
"We alekim selam," and be allowed to continue our route 
unmolested. We made forced marches by day and night ;. 
at noon we looked about for low ground, to light our fire 
on without being observed, and where we could take our 
mid-day meal, which consisted of rice with butter, » biscuit* 
and dried fruits. In the evening we were not allowed to 
light a fire, nor to whistle or sing. At a distance of about 
twelve or fifteen miles, on our left, we saw the famous ruins 
of Palmyra. Up to the ninth day we saw neither men, 
nor birds, nor wild beasts; when on a sudden, in the dark- 
ness of night, we happened to light on a place situated be* 
tween some low hills, where we perceived some Arabs and 
their tents. Fortunately, and to our great joy, they were 
all women, whose husbands, as they said, were absent, 
hunting, that being their means of subsistence. They mani^ 
fested no hostile intentions, and offered us a liberal portion 
of black dried meat, which had not an unpleasant taste, 
but I do not know what kind it was. The next day I 
cooked it with my rice, for ray camel driver put it into my 
pot without my knowledge. 

To deceive the women, we told them that we were 
coming from Bagdad and going to Damascus, after hav- 
ing provided ourselves with water, we retraced our steps, 
but only to make them believe so ; for we had hardly 
got out of their sight, when we struck into an opposite 
direction, and marched the whole night, for fear of being 
overtaken by their husbands. On the eleventh day, we 
arrived at Quoise, a village where we rested for one day, 
waiting for the escort from Hit, which was to bring us to 
the banks of the Euphrates, On the journey, I was told 
how the Arabs of the desert heal their wounds. They make 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 25 

n hole in the ground, in the form of a grave, which they 
heat with fire, the patient is placed therein, and covered, 
and he remains there until he is either cured or dies, a matter 
which takes but a very short time to decide. In the case 
of death, they have only to fill up the grave with earth ; 
while, if the patient recover, he has to mount his camel and 
meet the enemy. Their wounds are either spear-thrusts or 
sword-cuts, as they very seldom use guns in the desert. 

The caution with which the camel-drivers carried us 
through the desert is not to be described. On the third 
or fourth day, on our arrival at the wells, in order to give 
water to the camels, and to fill our leather-bags, the most 
sharp-sighted among them placed himself on an elevation, 
to ascertain whether there were any men discernible in the 
distance. If they found embers or ashes, they examined 
the place strictly. The excrement of the camels also under- 
went a scrutiny as to whether it was new or old, which way 
the animals passed, &c. We were brought from the banks 
of the Euphrates into Hit, as they told us that the place we 
were in was not perfectly secure. The governor ordered us to 
appear before him, and he demanded a certain sum from 
the two Armenians, our fellow travellers, but not from us 
nor the pilgrims, as we were provided with a letter of recom- 
mendation from the Pasha of Damascus to Dohud Pasha of 
Bagdad. This letter, which served us in the meantime as 
a passport, was so much respected by j^the Agha of Hit, that 
he placed it on his forehead as a token of respect. 

At midnight, we were alarmed by a great noise and 
uproar in the town. Upon asking for an explanation, they 
told us that the Arabs of the desert were in pursuit of the 
pilgrims. This information filled us with fear and anxiety, 
for we were all assembled in the same house, and firmly 
believed that it was the husbands of the women we had met 
with previously, and that their intention was to plunder us ; 
but we were mistaken. A short time afterwards the people 
informed us that they were the Agha's enemies, the Agelis, 
who were come to take revenge on him, and it was rumoured 
that they had forced the paUce, and killed the Agha. 



26 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

However much we regretted the murder of that poor 
man, by whom we had been recieved only the evening before 
with such kindness, we could not forbear rejoicing at not 
having been ourselves the destined victims. We were told 
that the Agelis ( an Arab tribe ) had been settled for fifty 
years at Hit, and having paid the same taxes as the other 
inhabitants, had been forced by the new Agha ( regent ), the 
greedy Kurde ( wolf), to pay a certain sum with which they, 
as true subjects, should not have been charged, and they 
accordingly obstinately refused to pay. But the governor 
obtained troops from the Pasha of Bagdad, with whose 
assistance the Agelis were driven out of Hit, and their goods 
were confiscated, for which treatment they swore to take 
revenge on the Agha. 

With the break of day, a soldier came to inform us that 
the two innocent sons of the Agha, and his brother-in-law, 
had had their throats cut while asleep, but the Agha himself 
was only wounded, and had escaped from the grasp of the 
Agelis, and desired us to visit him. We found him outside 
of the town, not far from the city gate, sorrounded by 
about fifty horsemen, with whom he had been pursuing his 
enemies, who had taken possession of all his moveable pro- 
perty ; but his pursuit had been in vain, as he could not 
overtake them. He was wounded in one of his legs, and he 
escaped death only by throwing himself from the high 
verandah of the palace into the neighbouring yard. He re- 
quested us to prolong our stay with him, in order to cure 
his wounds, promising, as soon as he should be well, to 
escort us to Bagdad. We could not resist this application, 
partly owing to our gratitude for his kind reception, and 
partly because we thought by curing him, which seemed an 
easy matter, we should render a service to the Pasha of 
Bagdad, which might be of greater advantage to us than 
the letter we had from the Pasha of Damascus. Accord- 
mgly, we separated ourselves from our travelling compani- 
ons, who on the same day went down the Euphrates on 
their way to Bagdad. We committed, however, a very 
great blunder, for which we had to sufifer, by quitting the 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 27 

^ouseofthe pilgrim, where we were livinf^ so comfortably, 
•and establishing ourselves in the miserable palace of our 
patient, the Agha, who was reduced to such a miserable 
state of poverty by the robbery, that he could hardly provide 
for his most urgent necessities, and was very glad to see us 
order our victuals to be brought from the bazaar. On the 
third or fourth night of our stay in our new abode, we were 
alarmed by the same tumults as before, and awakened by a 
lamentable cry from the women, of " Lilililili," proceeding 
from the terraces, where they slept in the open air. We soon 
saw armed Arabs filling the yard, quarrelling and disputing, 
and we took them for the Agelis. As our room was on the 
ground-floor, and had only one door and two windows looking 
into the yard, we imagined ourselves prisoners and lost, till I 
got to a corner of the window, through the wooden lattice of 
which I perceived the long tshibuck (pipe) of the Agha, 
which encouraged me to venture out. He was sitting among 
a great crowd of his people, quietly smoking his pipe, so 
drawing nearer to him and saluting him, I inquired about 
the cause of the tumult. He told me that the mother of the 
unhappy slain children, having passed a sleepless night, was 
frightened by the report of a musket, which appeared to 
proceed from outside the town, and she imagined that the 
Agelis had come back to attack the palace. She began to 
scream, and the neighbouring women joined in chorus, crying 
for help, which awoke all the population of the city. By a 
strict inquiry, however, it was ascertained that the gun 
had been fired by the watchman of a garden, to frighten 
the wild beasts, which resorted to the place for the purpose 
of devouring the melons. Although the whole affair ended 
with our fright, we nevertheless desired heartily to depart 
as soon as possible from that miserable place, where robbery 
was the order of the day. 

At mid-day we witnessed the owner of an ass being for- 
cibly deprived of his beast ; the deed was effected before the 
gates of the city, and the ass was driven away into the 
desert. In fact, the Arabs in genera! may with justice be 
looked upon as robbers of the worst description. 
8 



2S TIIIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

In the course of a week the Agha was perfectly cured 
upon which we requested him to despatch us without 
any further delay to Bagdad, according to his promise. He 
replied, that his gratitude towards us for the important 
services we had rendered him, would not allow him to ex- 
pose our lives to his enemies the Agelis, who had by this 
time pitched their camp on the banks of the river, and he 
advised us to wait'for a caravan, and join it when passing. 
But we so urged upon him the necessity of our departure, 
that he despatched us in a boat, in which we descended the 
river. We were escorted only by one soldier, so that with 
the owner of the boat, and his man, our party consisted of 
five persons. 

On the evening of our departure, we got wet through by a 
violent shower of rain ; and owing to that, and the fear of be- 
ing attacked by the Arabs, who were supposed to be on the 
banks of the river, we could not sleep. That night and the 
ensuing day, which by the bye was a delightful one, we 
passed down the river through lonely and desert regions, 
where not a man was to be seen ; nor, indeed, had we any 
great wish to see anyone. But on the following evening, 
when it had become quite dark, we were aroused from our 
slumbers by hearing from the right bank, where the Agelis 
( as we were told ) had their camp, an imperious voice, 
crying " jedem ! jedem !" ( come on, come on.) Here they 
are, thought we, and to prevent their firing on us, we obeyed 
the call, and approached the shore. We could perceive 
none of them till we came to land, where we met eight naked 
fellows armed with sticks, whose first business was to moor 
our boat, jump in, and plunder our luggage. Whilst this gang 
of robbers were busy plundering the bow of our boat, and 
searching the pockets of my companion, the servant of the 
owner of the boat, who was sitting on the poop, whispered 
me in a low voice, " I am a native of Ouoise ( a village be- 
fore mentioned, near Hit ), and have nothing to fear from 
the Agelis, I may save your purse, if you trust it to me." 
I did so ; but a small bunch of keys, belonging to the 
luggage, which we had sent by the caravan, being attached 



TIIIRTY-FIVE YEARS IX THE EAST. 29 

to the purse, and rattling when I handed it to the man, be- 
trayed us, and they seized the servant, laid hold of the 
purse, and struggled to get it. Tlie obstinate resistance of the 
poor man was in vain, for the rascals kicked him into the river, 
and succeeded in getting possession of the purse. But the 
owner of the boat, when all the robbers were out of 
it, profited by the circunnstance, cut the ropes by which it 
was fastened, left his man behind, and made an effort to 
gain the opposite bank of the river. 

Scarcely were we in the middle, when we heard them 
vociferating, and calling us back, with a promise to return 
ail they had taken, swearing, even by the name of their 
prophet, that they had a patient among them whom they 
wished to^be cured by us. But we could not rely on their 
oaths, as we believed them to be Agelis, and so we rowed to- 
wards the opposite bank. Scarcely, however, had we arriv- 
ed there, when one of them came swimming upon an inflated 
goat-skin, in order to persuade us to come back to the 
patient, who was his brother, and we were so embarrassed, 
and driven to such extremes, that we felt ourselves obliged 
to soothe him with the promise that we would come to them 
early in the morning. As he remained with us, we passed 
another sleepless night. At break of day, we perceived 
a few black tents, not far from the place where we were, 
which gave us some consolation. Accompanied by the sol- 
dier, whom the Agha of Hit had sent with us, my com- 
panion went into one of these Arab tents, to convince 
himself of the truth of the man's statement. He soon came 
back, and told me that the robber was the Sheikh Dendal, the 
chief of the country on the other side of the river ; that he 
was assured that the elder brother had been for some time 
sick and swollen, and he added that he was ready to go 
there on horseback to see the patient. They then led him 
to a fordable part of the river, and I remained with the boat ; 
and whilst I was musing on this barren, but still somewhat 
cultivated ground of the desert, calculating what da,y of the 
week we were in, and guessing that it might be Sunday of 
the second week of November, probably St. Martin's day 



30 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

( when in my native country it is deep winter ), I saw two men- 
coming up the river, armed cap-a-pie. They passed by without 
saluting me with their Selam, which surprised me, and 
they went straight to the boat, inquiring for my com-- 
panion. They then loaded me with abuse, asking who 
had brought us from Constantinople to cure the wounds 
of the Agha at Hit, and adding that they v/ould punish 
me immediately for having done so, if it were not for the 
Khater ( favor ) and for their regard for their friend, the 
Sheikh Dendal, and they finished, by assuring me that we 
must not expect to escape from the grasp of their bre- 
thren, as one hundred and fifty Agelis were hunting after 
us. 

After this menace, they left the boat and crossed the 
river, at the same spot where my friend had crossed on 
horseback, with as much ease as if they had been walking, 
on land, carrying their clothes and their weapons on their 
heads. When I lost sight of them, the owner of the boat 
came up to me, asking whether I understood what they 
had said to me. " But too well,'' replied I ; then I asked 
him, what was now the best to be done ? He advised me, 
first of all, to put off my new richly decorated and gold 
embroidered cloak ( Aba ), and to take his old worn-out 
striped one. He concealed mine, and led me to a neigh- 
bouring field, covered with high Indian corn ( maize ), and 
desired me to sit dov/n and remain quiet, until he should 
come to me. I followed his advice, and after an hour had 
elapsed he came back, with a smiling and contented 
countenance, telling me that the man of Quoise, to whom 
I had given my purse, and who remained the previous 
evening on the opposite bank, had arrived, and reported 
that all the stolen luggage had been restored to my com- 
panion, and that he had administered some medicine to 
the sick sheikh ; so that we might now safely go over the 
river to fetch him, and then continue our journey. He 
added that the sheikh, although dropsical, and dangerous- 
ly ill, after some consoling words from my companion, 
entertained hopes of being again restored to health, and 



TIIIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE FAST. 31 

my companion had promised to send him still better remedies 
from Bagdad, by the man he should send with us. We 
then crossed the river, and having met my friend, we all 
embarked, together with the restored luggage, accompanied 
by a messenger from the sheikh, and left that place about 
three or four in the afternoon. On the same night we were 
again disturbed, a great noise on the shore rousing us frora 
our first slumber ; the owner stopped the boat, and on our 
asking the cause, he told us that a caravan was on its 
way to Bagdad. No news could be more agreeable to us ; 
elevated with joy, we jumped on shore, and found that they 
were carrying corn to Bagdad ; the caravan consisted of 
about forty asses, two of which we hired for our accommoda- 
tion ; and then joined them. The messenger of the sheikh 
accompanied us on foot, the other three persons from Hit 
we sent back, rewarding them for their services. Although 
we felt extremely happy at having escaped from the 
Agelis, nevertheless, we were not completely at our ease, 
for we observed our drivers bending their bodies almost to 
the ground all the night long, listening, and looking first 
to the right, then to the left, in order to ascertain whether 
the steps of the pursuing robbers were on their heels ; and 
this they continued doing till dawn. About that time 
they stopped, and proceeded to unload their beasts, and 
we then lay down on the hard ground to enjoy a couple 
of hours' rest. 

At sunrise we were aroused to resume our journey, and 
when we opened our eyes and looked about, we observed 
some ancient ruins on an elevated site, which they called 
Boorj-Nimroud. At a greater distance we saw the golden 
cupolas and minarets of Kerbela, the holy tombs which the 
Shias ( Persians ) had consecrated to their martyrs, the 
Imams Hassan and Hussain, which are situated on the right 
bank of the Tigris, above Bagdad. At noon, our proces- 
sion entered that famous city, where we met with a kind 
reception, in the house of Mr. Swoboda. The French con- 
sul, who was a bishop, presented us to the Pasha, and as our 
reputation had already reached the ears of th^ inhabitants^. 



32 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

we soon had plenty of professional occupation. M/" 
companion, as acting physician, only cured the internal dis' 
eases, whilst I occupied myself with surgical cases. 

Dohud Pasha was a native of Georgia, who had killed 
his master, the former Pasha of Bagdad, and usurped his 
dignity and place. As long as he paid the Porte the 
required subsidies, he enjoyed the protection of the Sultan ; 
but when he began to organize his troop?, by putting them 
under the command of French ofiP.cers, he found himself in 
dif^culties, as he had exhausted his treasury in the equip- 
ment of his army. Even the expedient of manufacturing 
base coin, did not suffice to raise the sum required to be sent 
to Stambul. Besides that, he had ordered a Kapoojee-Bashi- 
(dispatched by the Sultan, probably to bring him his head ) 
to be murdered ; for that reason the Porte made war against 
him, which ended in his captivity ; he was brought to Con- 
stantinople, where he was pardoned, and I saw him there ia 
the years 1836--1833, 

The first patient the Pasha requested me to attend, was 
a peasant-lad, belonging to a silk-manufactory of the Pasha's- 
whose case had been treated without success by almost all 
the physicians of Bagdad. The lad was about twelve years 
of age, and v/as tormented by insects in his ear, which caused 
such pain that he was continually crying ; sometimes the 
vermin crept out of his ear. After having tried some 
injections with a syringe, containing substances calculated 
to destroy insects, a few of them died, and I was now fully 
satisfied as to the cause of his complaint, of which I had 
doubted at the commencement. After the lapse of a few 
days, I placed the patient in the rays of the sun at mid-day, 
hTted the ear-lap in such a manner that the rays of the sun 
could enter it, and then I discovered some black object, 
which I extracted with a forceps, and found it to be a nest 
of insects. Almost distracted v/ith joy, the boy fell on his 
knees, and expressed his gratitude, for having been restored 
to his sense of hearing. The nest was two-thirds of an inch 
in length, and half-an-inch in diameter. I put it into a vial 
filled with siyrits, and went with it, accompanied by the boy 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 33 

^o the minister, Masraf Effendi, who introduced us to the 
Pasha. 

He examined the nest in the vial, and asked the boy 
whether he was really cured ? " Yes, my Pasha," was his 
answer, whereupon he said to me, " Afferim," ( well done ); 
and I received 1,000 piastres, besides a Tshokha ( cloak of 
honour ), 

Many readers will ask, how did these insects come into 
the ear ? I questioned the boy, and was told that he slept 
in a stable where cows were kept. I therefore considered 
the insects to be cow-lice, which had crept into his ear and 
bred there. 

At the suggestion of the minister, the Pasha requested 
me to attend an Arab, who was lame, in consequence of a 
gun-shot wound which he had received a few years before 
in his hip. Although the man felt no pain, and no foreiga 
body was perceptible in any part of his limb, ^he neverthe^ 
less persisted in stating that the ball was sticking some- 
where in his hip. The surgeons endeavoured to convince him, 
that if such had been the case, they could never have suc- 
ceeded in healing the wound. The question with me was, 
whether or not I ought to re-open the cicatrix, and search 
for the extraneous substance in the hip, I thought this 
operation was needless, and yet I felt compelled to do 
something, in consequence of the order of the Pasha. 

It occurred to me that exercise was necessary, so I order- 
ed him to walk a great deal, to beat the ground firmly, and 
caused the hip to be tapped on that part where I presumed 
the ball to be, rubbing it frequently with the hand down- 
v/ards, and I gave him also an emollient ointment, &c. After 
three weeks the man felt a pain in the hollow of his knee 
caused by the presence of an extraneous substance. I exa- 
mined the part and felt a protruding body, which was easily 
moved from one part to another. It was, in fact, the ball 
which I immediately cut out, and the patient was very 
soon cured of his lameness. Thus the mystery of this case 
was solved, my fame was established, and the Arab surgeons, 
or more properly barbers, were cast iuto the shade, 



34 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

Pasha Dohud was at this time waging war with the Afabs^ 
between the Euphrates and the Tigris, and I was sent, at the 
request of the minister, to Hilla, where I had the opportunity 
of seeing the ruins of ancient Babylon. On the road, 
betv/een Bagdad and the camp, I beheld a horrid spectacle^ 
namely, a pyramid of some hundreds of the heads of Arab 
rebels. I had only followed the expedition from Hilla to 
SugeshucW ( Schuka-Shu ), when the Pasha ordered me, by 
a Tartar express, to return to Bagdad. The same mes- 
senger brought me a letter from my companion, from which 
I learned that a princess of the Pasha's had been delivered of 
a deformed child, where indeed no surgical assistance was 
required, but he had seized the opportunity to send for me, 
under the pretext of consulting me about the state of the 
patient ; while his real motive was, to draw me out of my 
disagreeable situation. I wrote to him, stating that in this 
campaign we were feeding on sand rather than on bread, 
which made such an impression on his feelings that he 
caused me to be recalled. On my return, I had only the 
Tartar and one servant with me. By the Pasha's orders, we 
made forced marches, changed horses, crossed the Tigris, and 
arrived one evening very late at a small town named 
Mumilla, situated on the left bank of that river. There I met 
with the inspector of the provisions for the army, who was 
afflicted with an inflammation of the eyes, and requested my 
medical assistance. I bled him, and prepared a collyrium 
of acetate of lead, laud. liqu. Sydenh., camphor, and mucilage 
of quinceseeds, which caused a burning pain at the com- 
mencement, but effected in the meanwhile a visible ameliora- 
tion. In his joy for the happy result, he ordered a sheep 
to be killed as an offering ( kurban ), and accompanied the 
feast with musicians and dancers, and he made me a present 
of fifty piastres in small Para pieces. Fatigued as we were, 
we wished rather to rest ourselves, than to be amused, and 
accordingly dismissed the assembled people, a proceeding 
which we thought excusable, and then continued our journey. 
At our request, an Agoo ( guide) on horseback was ordered 
to lead us through the desert. Accordingly, we started at 



TIIIRTYTIVE YEARS IN THE EAST* 35 

i%vo o'clock after midnight, entrusting our Agoo with our 
wallet, ia which our provisions ( roast meat and bread ) were 
packed ; we put also the horses' provender under his care, 
and left the place, hoping to reach a watering-place about 
nine or ten in the morning, where we might likewise meet 
with some Arab tents, and breakfast, and allow our horses 
to rest; but the Agoo missed the road, and it was -not till 
the afternoon that we became aware of the fact, when we 
observed him deviating first to the right and then to the 
left. The Tartar, in a rage, menaced the guide continually, 
and added that he would cut off his nose and ears. I did 
my best to appease him, making him understand that the 
guide, who was already perplexed, would get still more 
puzzled by his continued threats, and that he ought to 
consider that he had not intentionally misled us ; but my 
admonitions were of no avail. The evening was now draw- 
ing near, and in the darkness of the night our guide de- 
camped. Imagine our state ! in a desert, without a guide, 
not knowing the way, even by daylight, no human being 
visible, forsaken by all the world, riding hungry, thirsty and 
exhausted horses, without nutriment for either man or beast, 
and, above all, the anxiety as to whether we should ever get 
out of that maze. The sky was clouded, it was raining, and 
we were chilled by the cold, it being the end of the year. I a 
the heavens not a star was visible, to guide us ; we were like 
blind men, not knowing whither to direct our steps. We 
left the horses to their own instinct, but, like ourselves, they 
did not know the way. In this desperate dilemma, ray 
happy star, beneath whose influence, perhaps, I was born, 
and which has often guided me in difficulties, shone again. 
We observed at some distance, a small fire, towards which 
we directed our steps with renewed courage ; but it appeared 
and disappeared, as the rain and wind either extinguished 
or revived it. We heard, also, in the stillness of the desert, 
the barking of a dog. We followed the sound till we 
arrived at a thicket, which we had some trouble in getting 
through, found a river, and perceiving that the fire and the 
barking came from the opposite bank, to which we could 
9 



36 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

not pass. From the course of the river, however, we had 
known in what direction Bagdad was situated ; and, travel- 
ling upwards, we very soon reached a few black tents •, but 
the people were so poor that they could not offer us any 
hospitality, as they had food neither for us nor our horses. 
The only service they proffered was to give us a guide, 
who br6ught us, after half-an-hour's walk, to the tent of 
the sheikh, where we met with a very kind reception. 
The sheikh himself was at this time in Bagdad, but in his 
absence his wife performed the duties of hospitality. She 
ordered the servants to light a fire under the large tent, 
where we dried and warmed ourselves, and were served 
with fresh coffee and rice-pilaw. The servants took charge 
of our horses, and after having taken my meal, I went to 
sleep. A corner of the tent served me for my bed, and 
my saddle-bags as a pillow. Before dawn, the Tartar awoke 
me, saying : " We mu5t proceed on our journey." I drowsi- 
ly arose, and at the same time my servant showed me that 
they had cut through my saddle-bags on one side, and 
extracted the bundle containing my best clothes. I remem- 
bered having heard, during the night, some goats bleating 
outside the tent ; and probably the thief had brought them 
there, that he might perform his exploit with more security. 
The Tartar began to make a noise, threatening to arrest 
the sheikh at Bagdad, and to make him pay ten times 
the value of the stolen property, if they did not find out 
the thief. They made researches, it is true, but without any 
good result. On the same day, towards evening, we arrived 
at Bagdad, where I was informed that my intended patient 
required no more medical assistance, as he was reposing 
quietly in his grave. 

At Bagdad I also performed several operations for the 
stone, but 1 did not vaccinate, in consequence of being in- 
formed, to my ereat astonishment, that several Christian 
ladies obtained their livelihood by vaccinating. Provisions 
were at this time so cheap at Bagdad, and the coin so bad, 
that one shilling was valued at about five grush ( piaster ) ; 
coQsequeatly, litUe was to bs obtaiaei Ui^re. VVi w^re 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 37 

told that there were four French military officers in the 
service of Runjeet Sing at Lahore, in India ( Allard, Ventura, 
Court, and Avitabile ) who, after the defeat of Napoleon, 
having served in Persia, were about to organize a regular 
army at Lahore, and that no European physicians or sur- 
geons had been yet engaged. We therefore, thinking it 
better to accelerate our departure, requested our dismissal, 
which was granted, and we thus left Bagdad. Our friend, 
Mr. Svvoboda, furnished us with letters of introduction to 
the aforesaid French officers, and we went down the Tigris 
to Bassora, and embarked there for Bender Bushir, in 
Persia. At Bushir we met, at the British consul's, with six 
English officers ( one of whom was a medical man, cominef 
from Bombay ), who were on their way to England overland. 
We sold them our two Arabian horses, and becoming 
acquainted through that transaction, we went with them as 
far as Shiras^ where we visited the ruins of Persepolis, and 
then separated. On the journey we had an opportunity of 
rendering a special service to our companions, namely, that 
of saving their luggage, and at the same time of witness- 
ing the cowardice of the Persians. The fact was, that a 
fortress in the mountains, between Bushir and Shiras, having 
capitulated, the garrison, which consisted of a couple of 
hundred robber-like looking fellows, had met us in a forest, 
and fallen on the luggage-train of the English officers, who, 
together with their numerous servants,, were considerably in 
advance. When I saw the miscreants dragging about by 
the hair our men, I fired a pistol, partly to give a signal to 
the Englishmen to come to our assistance, and partly to 
frighten the assailants., which had the desired effect ; for 
they fled right and left among the trees. We then pursued 
our journey without further molestation, and received the 
thanks of the Englishmen, who were coolly taking snufif, and 
waiting for us at the top of the hill, near the fortress that 
had previously capitulated. 

As it was too late for us now to^ proceed to India by 
sea, we preferred staying a few months at Shiras, following 
our profession, aad waiting for the wiater season, which is 



jS^ . TIIRTV-FIYE YEARS IN THE EAST, 

more convenient for travelling to L-ihore. We employed' 
that time in studying the Persian language, as the know- 
ledge of it would facilitate our getting an engagement. 
But we could not remain there long, being continually ill- 
treated and robbed, and we therefore thought it preferable 
to go overland to Lahore, by the way of H Ispahan, Heirat,. 
and Cabul. On this journey we had again to endure a 
great deal of annoyance from the Persians, who being defeat- 
ed by the Russians in war, were anxious to revenge them- 
selves on us ; they treated us, in fact, worse than their dogs, 
cheating, robbing, and insulting us to such a degree, that 
M. De Turk on one occasion cocked his pistol to fire at a 
radar ( road-keeper ) who was very insolent ; but I prevent- 
ed him from executing his design. Arriving at Hispahan, 
we found there a gallant governor, Hosruff Khan, from whom 
we met with a kind reception, and who gave us some 
medical practice, by appointing us to attend about forty 
Russian prisoners, some of whom were suffering from wounds 
and others from fevers. At this time we learned that the 
Russians were at Tabris, that Abbas Mirza had taken flight, - 
together with his wives, to Hamedan, and that the latter 
had upbraided the MoUa ( hii^'h priest) for having induced 
the Shah to wage war wiih the Russians, by assuring him 
that the Persians would remain unhurt by the fiery balls of 
the Russian guns, as his prayers would render them in- 
vulnerable. The priest took their reproof so much to heart, 
that he soon afterwards died. It is commonly said, that 
Abbas Mirza exclaimed, on that occasion " Pul bigirend, we 
pes birovend " — '■ The Russians shall take money, and go 
back to their country." In consequence of the fatigues and 
toils which we had to eniuru at Shiras, as well as on our 
journey to Kispahan, my comj .mion caught a nervous fever, 
which weakened his mind and i ody to such a degree, that 
he no longer wished to go on to Lahore, and he persuaded 
me to return with him to BagdaJ At Hispahan, a con- 
spiracy was formed by the native doctors against our lives,, 
of which we were informed by an Armenian, and, by the in- 
terference of the governor, we were pre:jerved. 1 availed 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 39' 

myself of my influence with Hosruff Khan, to procure frona' 
him some genuine Persian ;«<v/>iia/, for the wounded Russi- 
ans. In Turkey and Arabia they highly praised the wonder- 
ful effects of this medicine, and I was therefore eager to 
convince myself of its efficacy. But as the cases 1 had to 
treat rather required the use of instruments, I postponed 

the trial. 

Our return to Bagdad was via Urugurd and Kermansha. 
At Urugurd we were detained for several days by the Shaza- 
dah (the reigning prince), who requested us to attend to a few 
patients belonging to his household, the healing of whonrv 
brought us a tolerable little sum of money, and a few hand- 
some presents. Here again we had an opportunity of wit- 
nessing the manners and customs of the Persians. It was 
then Rluharem ( time of mourning }, and the tenor of the 
Shazadah's order ran thus, " during the time of the mourn- 
ing, all merchants are summoned to appear in the Meidan 
( a square in front of his palace ) at three in the afternoon, 
in order to shed their tears for the martyrs, Hassain and 
Hussain." On one occasion we saw the Faratshes (Shazadah's 
servants ) dragging a tradesman by force out of his shop, 
which was at the caravansary where we lived, and driving 
him to the Meidan. The plea of necessity was urged, to 
make those people weep by blows, whose feelings did not 
afford them tears freely. But we witnessed other atrocities, 
on the last days of the Muharem. We saw fakirs and 
dervishes, with tiRer-skins round their bodies, their long 
black hair hanging down and covering their faces and backs, 
beating themselves with iron- headed clubs, till the blood 
flowed down their bodies. They ran like savage beasts, or 
maniacs, through the streets and bazaars, howling, " Ya 
Ali !" One of our friends, a native of Bagdad, told us, that 
if any of the Sunits, to which sect he belonged, should 
venture that day to acknowledge his religion, he would run 
the risk of being immolated by the fanatical Persians ; so 
inveterate is the hatred between these two sects, though 
they are both Mahomedan ; and this is not the case in 
Persia alone, but in every place where Shias and Sunits are 



40 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

living together. Great animosity prevails between these two* 
sects in India, also on the day on which the Shias expose- 
the Tabut ( coffin ) in procession. In Cashmere, on these 
occasions, the Mahomedans burn each others' houses and 
shawl manufactories. From Kermansha we went to Bagdad,, 
with a caravan carrying several embalmed dead bodies of 
Persians to Kerbela, their sanctuary. 

Persia is a high plain, diversified by ranges of hills and 
desertSi It was in the month of August that we were on 
our journey, and the air was so bitterly cold on the morning 
of our setting out, that our very teeth chattered ; I recollect- 
ed that at home they call these the dog-days. We arrived 
at Bagdad, v/here M. De Turk left me, as he was resolved to 
return to Paris by land vioi Tocat and Constantinople, in 
order to take with him some Arabian horses ; a speculation, 
by the way, which proved by no means lucrative. A short 
time after his leaving me, I received some good news from 
Lahore, through a Persian who had been in the service of 
General Avitabile, which induced me again to attempt going 
there at the commencement of the favourable season, i, e., 
the early part of the winter ( 1829 ). I felt the more inclined 
to do so, as the plague was already raging at Mosul, and the 
inhabitants of Bagdad were fearful that it might extend 
as far as their own city, a thing which occurred soon after. 
In the year 1828, there had been at Mosul and its environs, 
a famine, in consequence of the crops failing, and numerous 
families went down the Tigris to settle at Bagdad, selling, 
their children for a mere trifle, owing to the want of means 
to support them. I myself sav/ a beautiful Christian girl 
purchased for twenty grush ( four shillings ). Scarcely had 
I left Bagdad when the plague broke out, and this scourge 
was followed by an inundation. A war, previously noticed, 
also broke out, during which Dohud Pasha was conducted 
as a prisoner to Constantinople, 

My only companion was a faithful servant, called Antun,,, 
a Christian, whom I brought with me from Bagdad, and 
v/ith whom, after having passed through Bassora, and Mos- 
cat, I arrived at Beuder-Karatshi in Sind. From Karatshi^j 



THIRTY-I-IVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 4I 

■Ttve pursued our journey to Hyderabad, with a camel 

caravan. At that town I stayed for a few days, and made 

the acquaintance of a Persian Emir, who gave me some 

letters of introduction to one of the most respectable houses 

at Heirpore, which I had to pass on my journey from 

Hyderabad to Moultan. At the former place I hired two 

camels. The road was always at a distance from the river, 

and we were therefore frequently obliged to drink stagnant 

and stinking water, and on account of the heat ; at this time 

being the month of February, v/e travelled by night only, 

and rest during the day. In consequence of this, I was 

tormented with costiveness, an internal burning, and an 

excessive longing for acid drinks. I accordingly prepared 

some tamarind whey, but it operated on me like poison ; 

for after much vomiting, I discharged a quantity of blood, 

and fainted away, falling down beneath a tree in the forest, 

in which state I was found by the people, who had been for 

a long time in search of me. They brought me to the camp, 

where the camels stood ready for our departure, as this 

happened only a short time before sun-set. My tongue was 

parched, and I felt an acute pain in my right side, which 

led me to believe that I had an inflammation of the liver ■ 

-besides which, I had become very weak, in consequence of 

the loss of blood, so that I was unable to walk without 

assistance. 

1 desired my camel-driver to procure some leeches, but 
he could only console me with the hope of getting them on 
the following morning, at Heirpore. As I was quite exhaust- 
ed, and unable to mount the camel without assistance, I 
ordered my servant to place himself behind me on the 
animal to prevent my falling off. But as he was soon asleep, 
and the slightest accident would have caused us both to fall, 
I ordered him to mount his own camel, and to bind me 
safely on mine, where I passed a sleepless night, being 
unable to articulate a word without having previously 
moistened my tongue with water, which I had always 
near me. At break of day, on our arrival at Heirpore, 
I was conducted tQ the house to which I had my letter 



'42 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

of introduction already mentioned, and the first favour I 
iasked was, a quiet retreat, that I might have rest, and 
recover myself. The people, seeing the difficulty with 
which I dragged myself along, called in a Hakim ( a Persian 
physician) who lived in their house, and he offered me 
his assistance. I thanked him very heartily, and requested 
some leeches. " We have not any," was his reply; upon 
which, as my only resource, I applied a blister ; after which 
I became senseless, and lemained in that state until the 
evening of the following day. On my revival, my tongue 
was still so parched, that 1 was unable even to ask for 
water to moisten it, and I only obtained it by making signs, 
I\Iy feet were excessively cold, and besides the above- 
mentioned internal pains, I also felt the effects of the blister, 
although it had risen but very slightly. I examined my 
pulse, but the pulsation was imperceptible, from which I 
concluded that my last moments were near at hand. My 
servant told me that, during my stupor, I had had some 
discharges of blood ; I ordered him to fetch the Mirza ( scribe ) 
of the establishment, that he might make my will ; and he 
came with his paper and kalemdan ( writing stand ), and 
placed himself at a respectable distance, the hakim having 
told him that my disease was dangerous and contagious. I felt 
so weak and debilitated, that I was scarcely able to siga 
my name. I told my servant that I had but little hopes 
of living over the night, and desired him, should it be the 
will of God that I must die on the banks of the Indus, to 
bury me and convey my effects to Lahore, and deliver them, 
-with my papers, to the Generals, Court and Avitabile, to 
whom there was a letter of introduction, sent by Mr. Swoboda. 
For the services he himself had rendered me, I gave him 
a liberal remuneration, that I might secure his executing 
my wishes, upon which he wept and promised obedience. 
In this deplorable state, considering myself at death's door, 
like many other medical men, I began to think that, in 
spite of the numerous remedies, there was no chance of 
my recovering from the effects of the poison I had taken, 
and that the medical art was but a falh^cious one, I began 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 43 

to recollect that I had always avoided bleeding in my own 
case, so as, a last resource, in spite of my previous loss of 
blood, I resolved upon trying the experiment, it being 
considered by many that the first operation of that kind, 
in dangerous cases, is usually beneficial. 

I summoned all my resolution, and was determined to 
use the lancet ; and having no one to perform the operation, 
I ventured to do it myself. I ordered warm water, put my 
hands and afterwards ray feet into it, and tried to bleed 
myself, but neither I nor my servant, Antun, could suc- 
ceed, as no blood came. Nevertheless, my courage did not 
abandon me, for I thought that if I spared my body to-day, it 
might be put to-morrow into the grave. In a fit of desperation, 
I cut through the median vein of the left arm, upon which the 
blood began to trickle, but to the amount only of about two 
ounces. After my wounds had been dressed, I lay down ex- 
hausted, and recommending my soul to God, 1 soon fell a- 
sleep. I passed a tranquil night, and on awaking in the 
morning, I found my feet warm, my pulse beating, although 
but faintly, and the internal pain somewhat abated; but 
the external pain was more acute, as the erysipelatous in- 
flammation had extended from the back to the navel, and 
from the arm to the hip, and owing to my excessive debi- 
lity, I was afraid of mortification. Nevertheless, I had more 
hopes of my recovery, relying on the efficacy of the bleed- 
ing and blistering. To free myself from the troublesome 
dryness of my tongue, 1 sent for some quince kernels, which, 
enveloped in a small piece of linen, I put into some water, 
and with this little pad I frequently moistened my tongue, 
which produced a very good effect. In the course of the day 
I began also to chew some monaka ( large raisins ), which 
refreshed me. To arrest the farther extension of local inflam- 
mation, I sent my servant to the bazaar, to endeavour to 
procure some leeches, and in case he could not obtain them, 
he was to bring a barber or some other person to cup me. 
He came back, accompanied by a woman provided with a 
quantity of leeches, by which I ascertained that the Persian 
physician, who told me that no leeches were to be obtained, 

10 



44 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, 

was a rogue. I caused twelve of them to be applied around 
the blistered part, and requested the woman to return in the 
evening, when I ordered her again to apply the same num- 
ber of leeches to the place where, a few years before, I had 
been afflicted with piles. The next morning I applied six 
leeches to my side, and in the evening, the same number 
behind, by which means I completed my cure without hav- 
ing had recourse to any other remedy. Keeping the blister- 
ed part in a state of suppuration, and treating the external 
inflammation with cold water, I made such an improvement 
in my health, that my restored appetite soon enabled me to 
digest solid food. At the expiration of five days I felt suffi- 
ciently strong to resume my journey to Lahore, to the as- 
tonishment of those who witnessed my departure, wondering 
whether I was really recovered, or in a state of delirium, 
as only three days had elapsed since I made my will, and their 
hakim had asserted that there was no chance of my recovery. 
At the commencement I made but very short journeys. I 
shortly afterwards had several abscesses where the leeches 
had been applied, one of them as large as a hen's egg, so that 
it was difficultifor me to maintain a sitting posture, and, not- 
withstanding my good appetite, and the salubrious air I 
afterwards breathed in the mountains, the weakness, produc- 
ed by only five days' illness, continued for a space of six 
months. What contributed greatly to my illness, may per- 
haps have been the circumstance that I had not been sea- 
sick, on our voyage to Bassora via Moscat to Bender-Karat- 
shi, as was the case with my servant Antun, who inhaled the 
same atmosphere, ate and drank the same kind of food and 
stinking water," &c., without suffering any inconvenience. At 
that period, the Sindians were not yet acquainted with the 
English, although they were their neighbours, and accord- 
ingly we passed villages, where the people were not inclined 
to furnish us with provisions, even for payment. Our camel- 
driver advised us to lodge in the mosques, in order to be 
taken for Mahomedans. By so doing, we were provided 
with food gratis, by the hospitable musselmans. I and 
my servant were dressed in the costume of the iohabitants of 



I 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 45 

Bagdad ; we could speak the Persian, Arabic, and Turkish 
languages, had long beards, and addressed each other as 
Hajee, i. e., pilgrim. Our carpets, which constituted our 
beds, were quite similar, and were placed close to one an- 
other. We ate together, according to the eastern custom, 
using our fingers instead of knives and forks ; in fact, we 
played our parts so well, that none recognised us as Chris- 
tians. Having our quarters in the mosque, it was very 
annoying for us to see the musselmans come five times in 
twenty-four hours, to offer up their prayers. They thought it 
strange that we, as pilgrims and their guests, did not join in 
their devotions. It is true, we could easily have done so, but 
knowing how to excuse ourselves, we did not like to push our 
dissimulation any further. We had only to whisper into 
the ear of one of them that we were unclean. From thai ex- 
pression they inferred that we had the gonorrhcea, which ex- 
cuse became a public secret ; and we thus got out of the 
difficulty. From Mooltan to Lahore we went on horseback, 
The journey from Bagdad to Lahore occupied four months ; 
I. e., two by water, and two by land. On my arrival at 
Lahore, I found that the king, Runjeet Sing, with his army 
and the four French officers, was absent, having gone to- 
wards Peshawur ; but at the commencement of the rainy 
season, in the middle of June, they had all returned to 
Lahore, and I was well received. The first patient I had to 
attend, after my arrival at Lahore, and before I got pub- 
lic employment, was Achilles, an adopted son of General 
Allard. This boy was afflicted with a fistula on the spine, 
of long duration, and which had been several times 
superficially healed by the native surgeons. He was so re- 
duced, that one could truly say, he was but skin and bone : 
•' Ossa atque pellis totus est," which of course rendered the 
ease most difficult. I v/as convinced that my medical re- 
putation depended upon this case. Greneral Allard told me 
that the boy would die, if not attended to, that he could na 
longer bear to see him in that pitiful state, and urgently so- 
licited my aid. He did not at that time imagine that his 
darling Achilles would outlive him ; but the destiny of naao 



46 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

lies hidden. Allard died at Peshawur, and was buried at 
Lahore ; and Achilles returned from France to Lahore, 
where he also died, and was buried in the cemetery, near to 
General Allard's own tomb, which was in his adjacent 
garden. 

I ventured to perform an operation, and that by force, 
for the boy made an obstinate resistance, when I placed him 
on a sofa. General Allard holding his arras and General 
Ventura his feet, while I made a cut along the fistulous sore^ 
which caused him to be senseless for the following thirty- 
six hours, and to suffer with severe fever. My assiduous 
attendance accelerated the radical cure of the fistula, his 
strength visibly increased, and after a few months he re- 
gained his original plumpness, and, six years afterwards, 
when General Allard and his family arrived at Bordeaux,, 
where I then was, I was astonished at Achilles' healthy 
appearance. On bis returning to Lahore a few years after-- 
wards, in company with Benjamin Allard, who went to take 
possession of the estates of his deceased brother, and to 
whom he officiated as interpreter in the Indian language, he 
fell sick, and died under the treatment of the native 
physicians. I was much grieved at the unexpected intelli- 
gence of his death, and paid him the last honours, by 
attending his remains to the grave. To encourage the 
suppuration of the opened fistula, I employed a mild* 
stimulating remedy, namely, cantharides infused in honey, 
on lint, twice a day, applied to the wound, by which it was 
soon cured. At the recommendation of General Allard, 
shortly afterwards, Rajah Suchet Sing, the younger brother 
of the minister, requested me to accompany him into the 
mountains, to attend him there professionally, to which I 
readily agreed, as, in consequence of my recent illness, I 
was very weak, and the summer heat of Lahore was 
intolerable. Besides that, my friends, the generals, advised 
me to accept the offer on account of the great influence the 
young Rajah Saheb possessed as one of the first personages 
at the court, and as by curing him I should establish] my 
reputation. 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 4/ 

Although my post was at that time not fixed, and conse- 
quently I did not depend on, nor was I subject to any one 
I nevertheless imagined that my departure for the mountains 
had met with the consent of Runjeet S\n^. But it was not so. 
The young Rajah, who had a secret disease, had induced me 
privately to accompany him, whilst Runjeet Sing, in my four 
months' absence, inquired after me several' times of General 
Avitabile, who had first introduced me to him. It v/as, probab- 
ly, for that reason that he detained me for nine months 
without giving me my dismissal, or appointing me to any 
office. General Allard said to me one day, jesting, " It is 
very difficult to get an appointment here, but still mors 
so to get one's dismissal, when once in offi;ce.'' He himself, 
feeling an excessive longing to revisit his dear native land', 
after an absence of so many years, petitioned for a short 
leave of absence, which the sly Runjeet Sing repeatedly 
promised, but a long time elapsed before he obtained it. 

On the third day after our starting for the mountains, we 
arrived at Suchetghur, at the foot of the hills, not far from 
Samba. We made our journey partly on horses, and partly 
on elephants. At that place, the rajah had his stables and 
cannon-foundry, and several new-cast cannons and mortars 
were tried in his presence. One of the former burst, and a 
gulendas (Indian artilleryman) was stunned. The rajah 
requested me to examine the man, who complained of a 
violent pain on his right side, accompanied by severe 
shivering ; but, to the great astonishment of all the specta- 
tors, there was not the least trace of any external violence, 
whereupon the rajah himself, considering the case insigni- 
ficant, opposed my wish to bleed him, and sent him some of 
his own mumiai. But at ten o'clock at night, about five 
hours after the accident had taken place, a messenger was 
sent by the rajah requesting me to attend the man, and 
bleed him. I instantly complied, and found that he had 
been, according to the custom of the Hindoos, taken out of 
his charpai ( bed ) and laid on the floor^ where he expired 
in agony before I could give him any assistance. I do not 
know whether his liver was injured or not, a post-mortem 



48 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

examination not being allowed to be made ; but it certainlT- 
was an extraordinary case, such as has never'occurred during 
my medical practice of thirty years. His death must have 
been owing to a shock from the piece of hot metal, which,, 
in passing near him, had injured some important organ 
necessary to the support of life, as fright alone could not 
have caused such violent pains and so sudden a death, 

From Suchetghur, we were conveyed in palanquins in 
two days, in the mountains, to Ramnuggur, where the rajah 
had, besides his castle, a fortress, in which his treasures were 
concealed. V/e passed the rainy season on the hills ; and 
in the autumn we descended, in order to witness the 
Duseire-feast at Umritsir. Thence, we went, with Runjeet 
Sing to Nadoun,. on the Beas river, where the Maharajah 
married the two daughters of the famous Rajah Sansar Chund, 
both orphans, and brought them to Lahore. We passed 
Jowalla-Meki, a sacred place in the eyes of the Hindoos, 
where there is^ a volcano. From thence, I travelled, with^ 
Rajah Suchet Sing, along the hills to Besouli, Jesrota, and 
Nurpore, where he was appointed receiver general of 
the revenues. 

On my return to Lahore, I was informed, by General' 
Allard, that a number of his dragoons had been bitten by 
a mad jackal in the night, while they were endeavouring to 
kill it. Several of the soldiers, who were seized with hy- 
drophobia, had died, some of them in the barracks, and 
others on their way home. The general made me the offer 
of experimenting on some of the bitten soldiers, who had 
already applied for leave of absence, that they might die 
near their families. I consented to it, and eighteen men 
were placed under my care. I was happy to find, in con- 
sequence of my treatment, that not one of them was attack- 
ed by hydrophobia. Thereupon, General Allard recommend- 
ed my mode of treating this malady to Dr. A. Murray, who 
was on a visit to Lahore with the political agent of Loodiana, 
Colonel Sir C. M. Wade. They both requested me to 
publish it for the benefit of suffering humanity, to which I 
agreed without any reserve ; and it was read in a public 



TIITRTY-nVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 49 ^ 

assembly at Calcutta, July 2nd, 183 1, and published. I take 
the liberty to introduce an extract : — 

" Dr. Honigberger's object, in the treatment of hydro* 
phobia, is to keep up a copious suppuration from the part 
bitten by the rabid animal, which he accomplishes, at first, 
by applying the cctual cautery, and afterwards by using 
stimulants to the wound. He also administers a compound 
of mercury and extract of tobacco, in pills, until they pro- 
duce a flow of urine ; and at the same time he recommends 
tincture of cantharides in an emulsion of bitter-almond to be 
repeatedly given, until a slight degree of dysuria is excited. 
Various other remedies and local applications are also 
spoken of as useful in hydrophobia. It does not appear 
that any other person has yet made trial of some of the 
remedies proposed by Dr. Honigberger," 

This was ray treatment twenty years ago, when I prac- 
tised Allceopathy ; but, since that period, I have made many 
interesting trials and experiments. 

A short time after the publication of the above-men- 
tioned method, I had a case where I tried, as a preventive, 
the endermic application, i. e,, I applied on the somewhat en- 
larged bitten part some extract of nux vomica, upon which 
the patient passed an unquiet night, dreaming of dogs 
running after him. I thought it a bad omen, and regarded 
it as a symptom of the approach of hydrophobia ; and I did 
not rely on the local application only, but gave him also, 
internally, a pill of the same remedy ( extractum nuc. 
vomic. ) one grain, mixed with three grains of carbonate of 
soda ; to which he considered he owed his recovery, as it 
caused an evacuation. 

I introduced to our distinguished guests. Col. Wade and 
Dr. Murray, an Akalee or Nahung, whose nose, ears and 
hands had been cut off by order of Runjeet Sing ( he had 
even deserved the gallows ), and whose nose had been so 
well restored in the mountains that we were all surprised, 
and confessed it could not have been better done in Europe. 
As we know, from history, this operation was even in the 
remotest antiquity, practised by the Hindoos ; and they 



5© TKIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

fermed the -nose oat of the cuticle of the forehead, which 
proceeding is now, and always will be the same. In Europe, 
where cutting off of noses is only in use, in exceptional 
cases — as when ulceration or other circumstances make it 
requisite — this operation is usually performed with the 
cuticle of the arm, and judiciously too, as, according to our 
custom, the head mostly is uncovered, and a scar on one's 
forehead, with a new nose on the face, makes rather an ugly 
appearance ; whilst, in the East, the scar remains hidden 
beneath the turban. 

In time of peace, the Nahungs gave a great deal of 
trouble to Runjeet Sing. On one occasion, he was even 
forced to place two pieces of cannon outside the Delhi Gate 
of Lahore, in the vicinity of Seidgenj, where the robbers 
congregate, because this band dared to intercept the com- 
munication of that city. They shut themselves up in Meea- 
Meer, five miles distant from Lahore, thence they made 
their appearance as rebels, but they were defeated, and 
forced to depart, and from the town also, to Umritsir. 
The individual just alluded to as deserving the gallows, 
had cut off the arm of a sentinel, for having prevented 
him from entering the tent of the king by a private 
entrance. The Nahung had a servant with him, who 
underwent no punishment, because he did not behave in an 
aggressive manner ; but the offender, by the order of Run- 
jeet Singh, lost his ears, nose, and hands, by the ^ same 
sabre with which he had so skilfully cut off the arm of the 
soldier on royal duty. After the sad execution, he ran to 
drown himself in a well, but was prevented by the people 
who were accidentally present. When the king was inform- 
ed of the fact, the culprit was sent to me, and put under 
my care and medical attendance, with strict orders to watch 
him, to prevent his committing suicide, and to present him, 
when cured, to the king. According to his own statement, 
he was drunk with bhang ( hemp ) when he committed the 
crime, and his only intention for intruding on the king had 
been to ask a gapa ( gift ). These robbers do not like to enter 
military service ; they prefer begging, and living by pillage. 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. Jt 

Rajah Heera Sin^f, son to the minister Dhyan Sing, who 
was a favourite of Runjeet Sinnj's, was afflicted with dia- 
betes, and we ( I and the five native physicians ) were con- 
sulted, at the palace garden of Hazooree Bagh, in the 
presence of Runjeet Sing, and on that occasion 1 made 
mention of milk-sugar. As neither the Maharajah nor his 
physicians had ever heard of any sugar prepared from the 
milk of cows, they were curious to see a specimen of it, and 
I was ordered to prepare some in the gulab-haneh ( rose-watar 
house ), in the presence of the fakir, Noor-oo-Deen ; but they 
had scarcely patience to wait for its preparation, I produced 
5ome white and fine crystallized milk-sugat-, which I 
presented in a box to Runjeet Sing, of which he gave a few' 
pieces to a boy to taste, but he did not find it so sweet as 
•cane-sugar, so no one spoke any more about it, and the 
milk scene was thus at its end. The gulab-haneh, where 
the rose-waters and the bed«musk ( aqua flor. salicis Baby- 
lon ), which they use as cooling beverages in the hot season, 
were distilled, was the very place where I at first practised, 
and it v/as there I gave lessons in pharmacy and chemis- 
try to the fakirs Aziz-oo-Deen and Noor-oo-Deen. The 
spirit produced from Cabul grapes, for the use of Runjeet 
Sing, was distiHed in that place in my presence, by his own ^ 
people, because every thing eatable or drinkable, destined 
for the Sikhs and Hindoos, must be prepared with their 
own hands, no Christian or Musselraan being permitted to 
touch it, lest they should pollute it. There were also the 
royal magazines, under the care of Noor-oo-Deen, where I 
prepared different opiates, and many amusing metallic 
oxydes ( kooshtegee ), to please the fakir and Runjeet Sing, 
for which they held me in high estimation. Among others, 
I prepared some morphine, with a large dose of which the 
Maharaja would surely have killed a famous opium-eater, 
if I had not been consulted in time, and administered to 
him some antidotes. I thought it strange that no one at 
Lahore was aware of the existence of coffee, and its use- 
fulness. Even the learned fakirs, Aziz-oo-Deen and Noor- 
oo-Dsen ( brothers ), who were of Arab descent, knew coffee 
II 



'52 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

only from their books, under the denomination of bun, 
and the sample which I showed them in 1832, in the 
Durbar, was the first they had ever seen ; but when the 
English arrived it became generally known. Neither had 
they any notion of our cantharides ; for which they sub- 
stitute meloe telini, a fly of greater efficacy, containing 
more cantharidine than cantharides. They are seldom 
employed by the native physicians for blistering, although 
they know the utility of them in cases of hydrophobia. 

Besides what had been mentioned on the effects of 

blistering^in the description of my own disease, the following 

•may likewise serve as a proof how beneficial that process 

' is when properly employed, and it may, in some cases, evea 

save a patient's life. 

General C , had brought on a disease, by an exter- 
nal misapplication of mercury, while he was with the court 
at Umritsir. It was in the warm season, and on the fourth 
day after the application, he became so indisposed that my 
services were called into requisition. The native physicians 
had previously administered different remedies, but without 
success. On examination, I found that the stomach and 
intestines were affected, which disturbed the functions of 
digestion, and caused a violent purging, with a burning of the 
anus ; I commenced by bleeding him, and applying leeches ; 
after which, the diarrhoea having been suppressed, an inter- 
mittent fever, exhibiting itself at various periods, of from 
three to seven days, was the consequence. Observing no 
improvement in the health of my patient, I conceived that 
the heat of the climate exercised an injurious influence over 
him, and that no hopes of his recovery could be entertained 
unless he were removed. I therefore solicited permission 
for him to remove to a cooler locality> upon which we were 
sent to Deenanuggur, in the proximity of the mountains,, 
to which place the Maharajah intended to retire with the 
court. 

The disease having lasted three months, and the patient 
becoming weaker, he began to complain of a burning at 
the region of the heart ; 1 tried to apply soms leecbesj bit 



■nnRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 5J 

I was obliged to cease, owing to his falling into a swoon. 
He daily grew worse and worse ; and shortly after became 
delirious, with his eyes open, and his feet cold. The offi- 
cers of his brigade, who vyere accidentally present, shed 
tears for their general, whom they expected to lose. I 
freely confess, that I had no hope of his recovery, seeing 
that his strength was daily declining. In this desperate 
state I applied three blisters, one on the nape of the neck, 
and the other two on the calves of his legs ; at the same 
time I gave him ray favorite opiate ( opium, camphor, 
ipecacuanha and tartar emetic ) : and he thus was saved. 
In the same night an eruption appeared, consisting of 
many thousand pustules, principally on the neck, shoulders,, 
and groins. From that moment the disease visibly diminish- 
ed ; his convalescence took a rapid course, and after a few- 
weeks he was entirely recovered. 

During the time of my patient's convalescence, rajah- 
Suchet Sing came down from the hills to Deenanuggur, as 
was supposed,, to meet the court. One day, the kind Rajah 
Saheb invited me to accompany him in a boat, oa a duck- 
shooting excursion, on an extensive lake. As the rajah had 
not his own parasol v/ith him, I gave him mine out of 
politeness ; for as I was shooting, I did not v/ant it. It was 
extremely hot, and I had nothing on me but a thin shirt, 
not even a waistcoat or jacket, so I was exposed to the 
burning rays of the sun for some hours, and the conse- 
quence was a severe coup-de-soleil. My friend C , on 

witnessing my state, despaired of my life, his " Tissot " 
stating that a coup-de-soleil was extremely dangerous. 
But how great was his surprise, when he saw me recover- 
ing on the third day ! Happily, the attack did not affect 
my head, but only one of my shoulders, and by applying 
leeches and poultices I recovered. 

The king of England had at this time sent five immense 
horses as a present to Runjeet Sing. Alex. Burnes had 
brought them up the Indus, and they were much admired 
for their size and uncommon height. One of them was lost 
on the way, and another became the famoHS riding-horsa 



54 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

of the Maharajah, who, being of a very low stature; appear- 
ed, when on the back of the animal, like an ape on arr 
elephant. This horse fell sick, and although I had hinrr 
immediately uuder my care, and spared no trouble, he be- 
came, like other dead animals, food for the dogs, carrion- 
birds, and Pariahs, the lowest caste in Fndia, who eat any 
animal, whatever may have been the cause of its ''death. 

The horse had several ulcers on his legs, which having 
been healed by internal and external remedies, caused con- 
vulsions, and in that state he perished. I afterwards hacR 
other opportunities of curmg similar ulcers with a simple 
remedy, according to ray medium system, namely, by la- 
manaria saccharina ( probably because it contains iodine ), 
such ulcers being a kind of scrofula. This disease occurs 
very often in the Punjab, and the natives call it Zeherbadi 
( venomous swellings ), as it ulcerates, and secretes a serous 
and corroding matter. By adhering to the same system,. 
I also cured horses affected with glanders. Arsenic and 
dulcamara alternately administered, in small doses, in the 
morning and evening, proved very effective. The French 
veterinary surgeons administer for this disease hydrochloric 
acid, which, diluted with water, they pour into the mouth 
of the horse, or use it as a local embrocation : this I learnt 
from the celebrated naturalist, Victor Jacquemont, on his 
visiting Lahore, en route to Cashmere, &c., and he declared 
glanders to be incurable. At Viennaj as in England, F 
believe, they kill at once horses affected with that disease. 

During the congress of Rupore, on the frontier of India, 
r attended, at Wuzeerabad, the governor of that province, 
General Avitabile, who, having sprained his ankle, had called 
in the native surgeons, barbers and bunglers, and they had 
so assiduously applied irritating poultices and embrocations, 
that the leg became inflamed, and was approaching to 
mortification. Under my treatment, the patient recovered, 
and the leg was restored to its former functions. Subse- 
quently, he was afflicted with a contraction of the muscles 
of the face, which, on account of his long, crooked nose, 
appeared the ro^-e striking ; t!-v«' r'_'-r"-^.'=', J, s.^r.riK'vl ^ci 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 55. 

his rmmoderate- indulgence in chaoopagne, which affected- 
his brain. Although I' cured him at that time, two 
years ago he died' suddenly of apoplexy, from continuing 
the same excess,. In his own country. Having acquired 
immense riches, he returned to Europe, to enjoy in his 
native land ( Naples ) the fruits of his exertions, and there 
he died in the autumn of his life. Peace to his ashes !' 
although many an unfortunate man was hung by his 
orders, at Wuzeerabad as^ well as- at Peshawur, where 
he exercised his suay in a- most arbitrary manner. The 
pleasure which he took in seeing people hung by dozens 
must be attributed to the affection of his brain. General 
Allard told me that the Maharajah' once reprimanded 
him for having executed some musselraans ; whom General' 
Avitabile had ordered to be hung because they were 
of opinion, that, under the- protection of a European' 
governor they might be at liberty to eat beef! The opi- 
nion of Runjeet Sing was, that he ought to have im- 
prisoned the criminals, and then allowed them to escape. 
It is well known, however, that General Avitabile was 
an active man \ that he introduced many useful reforms 
into the country, and was of good service to the English 
army on their march to Cabul. Living in his house 
for three years, I had an opportunity of knowing him 
well ; I therefore, conclude with the proverb, "De mortuis 
nil nisi bonura ; " particularly so because I am indebted' 
to him for the following important discovery :• — During 
the time I was performing the before-mentioned cures at 
Wuzeerabad, I lost, oa a hunting excursion, a hare in 
the copses, which we thought to find in a burrow. 
Wishing to get the hare, I sent to a village for some 
bels (pokers), in order to enlarge the hole. We succeed- 
ed in doing so ; but great was our astonishment when, 
instead of the hare, we caught a musk-deer, which- 
diffused so strong an odour, that I was seized with a 
hea'^ache, which lasted for three days. The "man who- 
dragged him out, was so frightened at finding an ''animal 
previously unknown to him, that he instantly threw it 



56 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST;. 

down, and our hounds bit it so violently that it was-- 
nearly killed. Having taken it home, I v/as advised 
by General Avitabile to cut ofif the musk-bagf, which T 
did, and keep to this day ; it being considered that un- 
less that operation is perforroed previously to the death 
of the animal, the useful substance of the musk-deer 
will entirely disappear ; the rest of the animal was regard- 
ed as useless, which I now regret, believing that it was> 
the most valuable specimen I ever met with, as- I have 
r\ever heard of such animals being found in the plains- 
of India. Those to whom I showed the mu&k-bag in^ 
Europe, suggested that the animal had found his way 
there from the Himalaya, and it might have been so ; but 
the odour and appearance of the musk of Cashmere and 
Thibet is quite different. The exterior of the bag of 
this animal resembles that of the musk of China, it has- 
smooth, soft, and short hair ; but the interior is a yellowish' 
brown mass, as hard as bees-wax, whereas, the Chinese 
musk is of a reddish-brown colour, and in grains of a 
friable nature. Without having prepared the bag, I put 
It into an iron box, and found that in the rainy season 
the insects had destroyed the external hair, without having- 
touched the internal parts. The musk has, like- that of 
China, a strong, agreeable scent. 

r thought that where one animal was found, more of the 
same race ought to exist, but I could not purchase any of- a 
similar description. Inow regret not having examined the 
hole where the precious animal was caught, as its companion 
might have been there, neither did I preserve the skin. Still 
I hope that the publication of this incident will induce 
English sportsmen in India to try to obtain the prize which 
escaped me, although the animal must be very rare, as 
neither the native physicians nor the druggists possess any 
knowledge of it. When in search of them, it ought to be 
considered that these interesting creatures are shy, prefec 
solitude, and live in cop-es, where their holes are made deep- 
in the ground, beneath bushes, and thus they are saved from 
total extermination. Many naturalists are of opinion that 



THIRTY-FIVE \T:ARS IN THE EAST. 57 

the subject in question might perhaps have been another 
kind of animal, which possessed the same odour, just as 
different plants emit a similar scent. The exultation I felt 
on having found a real musk-deer, caused me to neglect 
making a proper examination of its characteristic marks, 
its prominent tusks — being satisfied with the scent. To the 
best of my recollection, the size was that of a hare, and it 
was of a slender cylindric frame. 

Whilst I was residing at Wuzeerabad, a young Hindoo 
lady ( katretee ) came to call on General Avitabile with 
presents, as a token of her gratitude for his having preserv- 
ed her from the fate of a Suttee, i. e., being burnt alive with 
the body of her deceased husband ; which proves that many 
of these victims of Brahminism feel en aversion to that 
horrid ceremony. The woman confessed, that on the day 
of the burning of her husband, and in her extreme grief, 
she was ready to sacrifice her life, hoping' to enter paradise 
with her partner, but that now she felt more happy at 
having been preserved. 

Rtsnjeet Sing related to me that Dr. Allen ( an American, 
and governor of Goojerat ) used secretly to employ his 
time in his fortress in the practice of alchymy. I could not 
forbear laughing at the idea of his expecting to convert 
common metals into gold, as the conversion of quicksilver 
into silver v/as found to be quite impossible. Subsequently, 
my assertion was verified by the discovery he made, that 
the doctor's alchymy consisted in manufacturing false coin. 
Runjeet Sing reposed much confidence in me, and insisted 
on my accepting the command of an artillery department, 
or the office of governor of a province, like the Generals 
Ventura, Avitabile, and Dr. Allen ; this, however, I refused, 
deeming that I had not sufficient abilities to execute such 
an office properly ; but upon his giving me the choice, I 
accepted the management of a gunpowder manufactory^ 
and also a gun-stock establishment. Notwithstanding my 
numerous occupations, which were very lucrative, I was 
affected with nostalgy, /. e., I felt an irresistible longing to 
visit ray native country, which I had not seen for many 



5S THIRTY FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

years, to such a degree, that my sole thoughts and endeavors 
were bow to secure my return home. I was so occupied 
with this idea, that if they had offered me the Koh-i-noor 
( which is valued at half-a-miilion ) to remain there for the 
remainder of my life, I should have refused it. General 
Allard's words ; *' It is difficult to get an appointment here, 
but, when obtained, it is still more difficult to quit it," were 
continually in my thoughts, and it cost me much trouble 
to obtain my dismissal, or rather my liberty. 

Runjeet Sing was a man whose talents and prudence 
bad acquired for him a great reputation, whose memory is 
honored, and whose Lame will long occupy a glorious place 
in the history of India. Although descended from a noble 
family, being the son of a sirdar, he could neither read nor 
write. He had lost one eye in his childhood, in consequence 
of the small-pox. His external appearance was not hand- 
some, being remarkably short, delicate, and with indifferent 
features, which were, however, counterbalanced by his 
talents. He had an extraordinary memory. The promi- 
■nent trait of his character was, that he rarely did what was 
required of him, and acted often contrary to what he said. 
In general, no one was informed of the place to which he 
intended to go, nor of the time appointed by the astrologers 
for his departure. The dark side of his character, was his 
•extreme devotedness to sensuality, spirits, and opium, by 
which he shortened his life, I was an ocular witness of the 
spectacle, when he was married at Umritsir, to the Goolbe- 
goom (rose-lady ). She had been for the hast few years a 
kenchinee ( dancing girl ) in the service of Runjeet Sing, 
and she knew so well how to ingratiate herself with her 
patron, that he did not hesitate publicly to celebrate his 
nuptials, and declare his marriage a legal one ; for he cared 
not for public opinion, deeming that a sovereign ought to 
have the highest authority, and an independent will. She 
forsook the Mahomedan religion, continued to drink spirits, 
and she ate pork, just like Runjeet himself, and afterwards 
lived a retired life. She ruled the country, but only for a 
short time, and she actually caused (in concert with himself) 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 59 

her own husband Runjeet to be imprisoned, taking, however, 
advantage of that opportunity to extort money from the 
minister, as he was ready to ransom his lord and master at 
any price. The whole affair was, in fact, a plot, concocted 
between her and Runjeet Sing. A royal princess had died, 
whose fortune, according to the custom of that country, 
ought to have been taken possession of by Goolbegoom, as 
the regent princess. The inheritance, which consisted 
chiefly of jewels, was not sufficient to cover the deficiency 
of the maharaja's treasury ; and the minister to whom he 
applied for assistance could not afford, or would not provide 
the sum required. In that difficulty, Runjeet Sing played 
the thief, and stole ( as previously arranged ) the said jewels ; 
at which the Ranee Goolbegoom manifested such indig- 
nation, that she cast him into prison, firmly convinced that 
the miserly minister would no longer hesitate to procure 
the money required for the release of the sovereign, who 
was then undergoing such ignominy. Similar oriental 
tricks were not uncommon with Runjeet Sing, but this is 
not the place to enumerate them. 

My return to my native country was vici Mooltan and 
Dhera-Ghasi-Khan, where General Ventura was then 
governor. As I had provided myself with vaccine matter 
to use for my journey, the general wished me to vaccinate 
his darling child. Madame Ventura was opposed to my 
commencing with her little daughter Victorine, so her 
husband ordered some poor children to be brought from the 
bazaar at Dhera, whom I vaccinated, and to each of them 
he gave a rupee, as a remuneration. On the eighth day, 
on which the children ought to have come to me, that I 
might take the vaccine matter for further use, no one appear- 
ed, and I was told that their alarmed parents had removed 
them from the town. The parents had heard a rumour that 
on the eighth day, on their re-appearance, the Feringhee 
( European ) doctor would cut the moomiai from their arm, 
which operation was supposed to endanger life ; but on 
General Ventura's threatening the kotoal ( police officer ) 
with imprison meat, oae of the boys was brought to me ou 

12 



60 THIRTY-FIVE VEARS IN THE EAST. 

the following morning, from whom I got vaccine matter 
enough to enable me to vaccinate several other children, 
among whom was Miss Victorine, at the harem of the general 
The people having thus been convinced of their foolish 
error, came in numbers to my abode ; the population of all 
the neighbouring villages, young and old, wished also to be 
operated on. Here again I had the opportunity of making 
some medical and surgical experiments, obliged as I was, to 
wait four months for the caravan of the Loanis, who were 
purchasing indigo in that neighbourhood, to carry it to 
Bokhara. My intention was to accompany that caravan, and 
to continue my journey from Bokhara to my native country, 
by crossing Russia. I learned afterwards, that after my 
departure from Dhera, Runjeet Sing began to be indisposed, 
and he sent messengers after me, to induce me to return, 
but they did not overtake me. 

■From Dhera-Ghasi-Khan, I went with the caravan to 
Dherabend, situated on the upper part of Dhera-Ismail- 
Khan, at the foot of the mountain, where the women, 
children, horses and sheep of the Loanis were residing 
beneath their tents. Wishing to secure a supply of vaccine 
matter, on my journey to Cabul and Bokhara, I endeavoured, 
immediately on my arrival at Dherabend, to operate with 
it ; but it was a difficult task, as the heat was excessive and 
increasing. The Loanis, however, agreed to undergo the 
operation as soon as they had reached the cooler regions of 
the mountains. But during this interval the vaccine lost its 
virtue, which I regretted, especially at Cabul, as the 
small-pox was raging there in a most terrific manner ; so 
that, during my four months' stay at the house of the 
Nawaub Djubber-Khan, two of his daughters died. On my 
request, the Nawaub ordered inquiries to be made in the 
whole circuit of Cabul, to discover cows affected with cow- 
pox ; but in vain. At Cabul, this operation was quite un- 
known. At that time, I had forgotten having read somewhere 
that vaccine matter might be procured by inoculating 
the cows with the venomous matter taken from the small- 
pox> and that the venom is thus turned into a remedy* 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 61 

The short description of my journey from Lahore, via^ 
Dhera-Ghasi-Khan and Guznee, to Cabu), was pubh'shed by 
Colonel Sir C. M. Wade, in 1834, in the report of the 
Asiatic Society at Calcutta, with a map attached to it. 
The collection of plants which I made on this journey, I 
handed over to the late Baron Jaquin, Professor of Botany 
at Vienna, who placed them under the care of the late 
Doctor Endlicher and Professor Fenzel, to arrange them ; 
a part has been already published, under the title of 
Settum Cabulicum, and the remaining larger portion is near 
its completion, by Professor Fenzel. As for my collection 
of antiques, they are not unknown to the archaeological 
world. They were published in the year 1835, by the 
Asiatic Society at Paris, to which I had communicated all 
the results I had obtained by means of opening the cupolas 
(tombs ) of Cabul and Jellalabad, as also the coins and 
cameos which I bought when traversing Bokhara. On 
account of this communication, I was admitted an honorary 
member of the Asiatic Society at Paris; but my collection 
thereby lost its pecuniary value in London, so that I was 
obliged to forward to Paris two gold pieces (mokadphisis ) 
to a certain M. Rollin for 3,000 francs, that sum exceeding 
any offer made to me in London. Among other valuable 
curiosities, there was a Bactrian papyrus-scroll, which had 
not then been opened, and the reader may find it litho- 
graphed and published by the Asiatic Society at Paris in 1835, 
I believe that to be the only Bactrian manuscript which 
has ever been found. Having packed this collection in a 
case, I sent it from London, addressed to the banker 
Geymuller, at Vienna^ who afterwards became bankrupt, 
and the box containing those valuable curiosities remained 
full fifteen years at the custom-house at Vienna, unknown 
to me, notwithstanding many inquiries. To my astonish- 
ment and regret, I learned, on my arrival at Vienna ( July 
20, 1850 ), that the box, after an interval of fifteen years, 
had been sold by auction, a fortnight previous to my arrival 
( July 5 ). for about three pounds, as belonging to the 
creditors of Geymuller, with a pretext that the real 



62 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, 

proprietor no longer existed, I could not discover into whose 
hands these precions antiques passed ; and thus, in alJ 
probability, the invaluable contents of the Bactrian scroll 
will be lost for ever to the scientific world ! Besides the 
antiques which I sold in earlier years to different private 
persons at Cairo and Alexandria^ the various cabinets in 
St. Petersburgh, Vienna, Paris and London, possess a 
number of those which I collected. 

At Cabul I opened a great many cupolas ( tombs );, 
under the protection of the Nawaub Djubber-Khan, and 
by so doing aroused the suspicion of Dost Mahomed, who 
thought that I was carrying immense riches out of the 
country. Although I was so prudent as to deliver all the 
articles I extracted to Dr. Gerard, who was then at Cabul, 
on his return from Bokhara to India, requesting him to 
hand them over to General Allard, at Lahore, that he might 
convey them to Bordeaux, yet Dost Mahomed gave orders 
to the Governor of Bamian to have me plundered at the 
frontiers ; and thus I was robbed of all at the fortress of 
Akrabad ; but I again received my property by the inter- 
ference of the Nawaub Djubber-Khan and General Avitabile, 
the latter being then Governor of Peshawur. Fearing the 
cruelty of Mir Muradbeg, at Koondoos, I delivered at Cabul 
all my luggage to the caravan ready to set out for Balkh ; 
and dressed in the costume of the Affghan people, I 
proceeded incognito, accompanied by ten men, some of 
them my own servants, and some belonging to the Nawaub. 
My guide was the old grey-beard, Kheiat, the same who 
conducted Alexander Burnes and Dr. Gerard to Bokhara. 

We left Cabul in November ; it was excessively cold, and 
we lost, during a heavy fall of snow and a strong wind, on 
the highest summits of Mount Caucasus, two of our people, 
but we happily met with them again at Bamian. The ill- 
repute to which my opening the tombs had given origin, 
preceded me. The Affghans and Hozaras hunted after 
us, when they ascertained who I was. Arrived at Bamian, 
we got a room in the fortress, by presenting the letters of 
recommendation which Dost Mahomed and the Nawaub 



THIRTY-FrVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 63; 

■ had given us ; but they frififhtened us, by saying that there- 
were robbers in the environs, and on our road. Yet they 
promised to give us an escort, on account of which we were 
detained until the next day, as the equipment of our escort 
required some delay. Meanwhile, orders were given in the 
fortress of Akrabad to surprise aud rob us in the moun- 
tains. It was fortunate for us that a part of the garrison ot 
the fortress was absent, and those soldiers who were present 
had not their muskets in order, consequently, they were 
unable to contend with us. Neither would it have been 
an easy matter for them to defeat us, provided as we were 
with good arms, and deterniined to oppose any attack. 
The soldiers themselves were aware of this cricumstance, 
consequently, they thought it more advisable to allure us 
into the fortress, and plunder us during the night, and 
1 there experienced the truth of the saying, "Man must 
not despair in misfortune, neither be proud when in pros- 
perity." I patiently allowed my bands to be secured,, whilst 
I kept a small double-barrelled pistol loaded, in one of my 
high boots. At a favorable moment, my guide, Kafileh 
Bashi Kheiat, tried to liberate me, for which he received a 
sabre-stroke on his thick fur, happily, however, without 
being wounded. The robbers thought we had a great 
quantity of gold and silver concealed, and demanded 1,000 
rupees for my ransom ; but a man of the Nawaub's, to 
whose care I was committed, effected my release for four 
pounds of rice, which was weighed in. their presence. The 
fact was, that this set of robbers were urged on by their 
hunger as well as by their want of money. After having 
given them all I had in my possession, their chief was re- 
conciled. Laying one hand on the Koran, he produced 
with the other the order that had been issued for having 
me plundered, which was from the Governor of Bamian ; 
all the things which were taken from me were enumerated. 
On my arrival on the other side of the mountain, I 
immediately dispatched a man with letters to the Nawaub, 
in which I described the ill-treatment I had sustained. I 
was afterwards ioformed that the Nawaub had reprimanded 



64 THIRTY- FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

his brother Dost, and that the Governor of Bamlan was 
removed from his post, all my things being returned to 
General Avitabile, from whom I received them. Had I,. 
in my first excitement, opposed them, and fired at them, 
I should have been murdered. 

At Holm I was recognised in the court-yard of the 
receiver of the customs, notwithstanding my Afifghan 
costume, and though still on horseback, I was requested to 
alight there and take up my quarters. There is no doubt 
that I was betrayed by my own attendants, especially by 
Kheiat, who feared he would be punished when the caravan, 
which was coming behind us, should arrive, and give 
information of his having been my guide, and his passing 
me secretly through that country. The receiver of the 
customs instantly dispatched a man to Koondoos, where 
his superior officer, Utmaram, a Hindoo, minister to 
Emeer-Murad-Beg, resided. When informed' of this cir- 
cumstance, I sent off one of my attendants with the letter 
of recommendation which the Nawaub Djubber-Khan had 
addressed to Utmaram, in which he recommended him 
to take care of my person, or else he would destroy his 
property at Peshawur. This letter made such an impression 
on the minister; that the receiver of the customs received an 
order to forward me instantly and secretly, by an escort, 
to the frontier ; fearing that if the Emeer-Murad-Beg] should 
learn that I was there, he might insist upon my coming 
to Koondoos, and keep me there a prisoner. Thus I 
arrived safely at Balkh, where I waited for the caravan with 
my luggage; and the winter being very severe, I ordered 
a pair of kadjevahs. These are large baskets, which are 
placed on the camels, the interior of which being lined 
with woollen rugs, they prove to the traveller, who is 
accustomed to cower down, or sit with [outstretched legs, 
a very comfortable contrivance. During two days, while 
we stopped on our way on the left bank of the Amoo 
(Oxus river), I did not stir from this warm abode ; for the 
kadjevahs are ample enough to allow onejto keep in them a 
charcoal fire, as also to perform the required necessities ; and 



•THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 6$ 



the weather was rather disagreeable ; rain, wind and snow 
varying alternately. Thirty pairs of similar kadjevas, ranged 
in a square, formed a large yard. Several of them were 
filled with slaves ( Parsians and Hozarahs ). In my neigh- 
bourhood there was one in which there were four little girls ^ 
but as they were carefully watched, it was difficult to get a 
sight of them ; they were going to Bokhara, to be sold there. 

The Navvaub had made me a present of two ponies, called 
chargoosh {i.e., four-eared, because of their ears having been 
slit) ; and they were of great use to me in the Desert from 
Cabul to Russia. They instinctively dig up the roots below 
the snow for food. 

On my arrival at Bokhara, I delivered the letter of re- 
commendation which 1 had from the Nawaub, addressed to 
the minister Hoshbegi. His first inquiry was, whether I 
knew Jussuff Wolff and Alexander Burnes ? " Wolff, " conti- 
nued he, "was a very good-hearted man ; but as for Burnes, 
he was a deceiver, because he told me, up to the last mo- 
ment, that his intention was to go to England, via Russia, 
whereas he returned to Hindostao, via Khiva." He was 
convinced that Burnes was a spy, and asked me if I would 
act as he had done. I was told that there were 600 Russian 
slaves at Bokhara, most of them fishermen from the Caspian 
sea, or prisoners from the frontier. During ray four months' 
stay at Bokhara, a Russian spy. Monsieur D — , was also 
there, whom the Governor of Orenburg had sent with 
presents to the Government, and who, although a Frenchman, 
imitated the musselmans so well, as not to be recognised 
as an European, for he knew both the Arabic and Persian 
languages ; but the Nogais (Tartarian musselmans, under 
Russian protection) informed against him, and urged his 
being decapitated, lest he should inform against them for 
having transgressed the ukase, according to which, no Rus- 
sian subject was allowed to go to Bokhara. They availed 
themselves of the opportunity, and accused him of the crime 
of being a heretic, who had visited all the sacred places of 
devout musselmans ; 'they asserted also that he was in 
possessioQ of a diploma obtained from the Ulemas ( learned, 



66 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, 

literary men ) in Bokhara, for converting the musselmans 
Hving in Russia. Hoshbegi examined the diploma in my 
presence, and stated that it contained nothing more than 
the assertion that D — had undergone a severe examination 
in the Arabic language, to the satisfaction of his examiners : 
thus he was acquitted ; but his accusers caused hitn to be 
brought before the Emir, when he and his diploma were 
again examined, with, however, the same result. 

A short time before my departure, Hoshbegi requested 
me, by the bread and salt whith I had eaten in his house, to 
write to him from Russia, informing him whether this eidjee 
( ambassador ) was a Christian or a musselman. I was of 
opinion that it could be easily ascertained, even at Bokhara, 
by examining his body ; besides that, his light hair indicate, 
that he was not an Arab. The minister probably did not 
like to urge the matter any further, because Monsieur D. had 
brought him some valuable presents. When I entered 
Bokhara, I was forbidden to write ; and I did not transgress 
that prohibition. It is probable that the Englishmen who 
came shortly after my departure to Bokhara (Colonel Stod- 
dart and Captain Conolly) acted otherwise, which led to the 
discovery of their being spies, on account of which they were 
beheaded. Dr. Wolff, whose acquaintance I made at Lahore, 
and whom I saw last year in England (at the Isle Brewery, 
near Taunton), told me that these two Englishmen had 
been taken as spies and convicted, and that it was Ubd-ool- 
Sumet Khan, a Persian rogue, who informed against them, 
and afterwards caused Hoshbegi to be beheaded ; and who, 
eventually, was himself decapitated. 

In consideration of my attendance on the various patients, 
I obtained, by order of the minister, permission to pass 
on horseback through all the bazzars of the holy city, 
accompanied by a servant of his. Nevertheless, I observed 
many fanatic students plotting against me, on whom I had 
my revenge, although not intentionally. I am sorry to 
say that a student of the high college died in consequence 
of an operation performed by me. My enemies, however, 
could do me no barm, as I had effected several important 



THIRTV-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. .C7 

cures, among which was that of the Emir himself, whom 
I recovered from a gastric-bilious fever. The unfortunate 
operation was the extraction of a stone from the bladder ; 
and the proverb is true, which says — " Non est in medico 
semper relevetur ut aeger, interdum docta plus valet arte 
malum." I had a presentiment on that occasion that I should 
not succeed in the operation ; the patient was already 
so weakened and enervated, that I felt no wish to 
operate on him, and yielded only to the request of the 
minister, who told me that the student was about to 
kill himself in despair, in case I persisted in my refusal. 
To secure myself from reproach, should the operation happen 
to fail, I caused a document to be drawn up, with the 
signatures of the patient and his brother, declaring me 
not be responsible for the result of the operation, as I under- 
took it only because they insisted on my doing so. 
This document was legalised by the seals of the Emir 
minister, and judge. I performed the operation in the 
presence of several witnesses, whom I invited for the 
purpose, among whom there were several hakims. The 
extraction of the stone was performed in one of the 
apartments of the high college. Fortunately I used the 
apparatus altus, or I should certainly not have been 
able to extract it. The patient behaved very quietly 
during the operation, which was more than I had ex- 
pected, and said nothing but " Ya Allah I Ya Allah I " 
( O God ! O God ! ) To my grief, and to the surprise 
of all present, the stone was found to be immoveable, 
having grown into the substance of the bladder, in such 
a manner that I have never seen or heard of a similar 
case. The reader may imagine the difficulty, when, 
while such operations usually occupy only two or three 
minutes, I was fully five and twenty minutes engag-, 
ed in loosening with the fingers of both hands the 
stone, which had upwards of twenty points, every one of 
which resembled "a thick apple-stalk, half-an-inch long. 
The size of the calculus, however, did not surpass 
that of a hen's egg, and it was as white as crystallized 



T 9 



68 TIIIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

sugar ; an engraving of it may be found in the second 
volume. 

I instantly sent the stone to the minister Hoshbegi, 
at the fortress of Registan, with the melancholy assurance, 
that to heal the wound was impossible. In the mean- 
while, I availed myself of the opportunity to request 
from the minister some genuine Persian mumiai, this 
remedy being considered in the Arabic Materia Medica 
a specific against wounds and. fractured bones. I adminis- 
tered one grain to the patient daily. After a few days had 
elapsed, he began to have an appetite. The minister, who 
took great interest in the case, sent twice a-day to inquire 
about the state of the student; and , on hearing of this 
false sign of recovery, he said that my fears about the 
restoration of my patient were certainly groundless. 
" Would to God, " replied I, " that my prognostic may turn 
out false, and that I may be obliged to owe the restora- 
tion of the patient to yonr mumiai ;" but up to this 
moment all the operations that I had performed, when 
the stone was but slightly attached to the bladder, had 
always failed ; and in such cases, mortification ensues, 
generally on the fourth day after the operation, which puts 
an end to the sufferings of the patient. He took his leave, 
uttering the consoling words, " Trust and rely on God," 
which I indeed did ; for in sixteen days after, the unfor- 
tunate student died of weakness and exhaustion, the blad- 
der being perforated like a sieve, and thus defying sur- 
gical and medical art. Feeling the approach of death, 
he thanked both me and his brother for our attendance, 
declaring that his early death (he was about twenty 
years of age) was not the consequence of the inefficiency 
of the medical art, but the fulfilment of the inscrutable 
will and decree of God, the Ruler of all beings ! 

Hoshbegi was in one and the same person, Wuzeer, 
Receiver of the Customs, Druggist and Hakim to the Emir. 
Like all the literary men in the East, he not only possessed 
medical Irnowledge, but he was likewise the confidential 
" ■ ::d of his princely highness. He was also charged 



TIIIRTV-riVE YEARS IN TfiE EAST, 69 

with the preparation of the victuals for the Emir, who was 
somewhat over twenty years of age. All dishes, before they 
are placed on the table of the prince, must be tasted by 
Hoshbegi, in the kitchen ; he puts them afterwards in a 
locked basket, of which he and the Emir only have the 
keys. 

The Emir having taken the above-mentioned bilious fever, 
I was introduced to him by Hoshbegi. I administered 
the usual emetic, which had a good effect, and Hoshbegi 
requested the recipe of it. He asked me also for some 
tartar-emetic, quinine ( with which last he was acquainted 
through Dr. Gerard), and phosphorus, the latter for his 
recreation. 

Among the many patients I had to attend during my 
stay at Bokhara, was one affected with asthma, whom 
I was ordered by the Emir to cure, as he was a relation of 
his own, and the recovery of whom produced some sensa- 
tion. This man was troubled upwards of twenty years 
with a spasmodic and periodic asthma ; he was already 
very weak and exhausted, yet I succeeded in curing 
him. 

Hoshbegi was very much pleased with my information, 
and was anxious for instruction, so we passed many hours 
in conversation. A short time after the death of the 
aforesaid student, he asked me how the stone is produced 
in man ; this I explained to him clearly, At this time, 
the Emirakhoor ( chief groom ) gave me two stones from 
a horse, each the size of a goose egg, which had been 
ejected, along with the excrement, in the interval of 
a ysar, and which probably had been formed in the sto- 
mach or intestines. I remember relating an anecdote 
to him on that occasion, which I venture to introduce 
here, it having very much pleased Hoshbegi. A mother 
on the Lebanon, whose boy I operated on, told me she 
well knew the cause of the formation of the stone in the 
body of her son George. I begged her to tell me her 
opinion, and she went on saying : "My husband, who is 
a butcher, is addicted to drink ; he departed for the fair 



70 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

twelve years ago, when I was nursing George. His in- 
tention was to buy some oxen, and he took a large sum 
of money with him, of which he was robbed while in a 
state of intoxication. When I heard this, continued the 
woman, it made a very serious impression on me, and I 
suppose that my baby was also affected with my grief, 
as I observed on that very day he was unable to pass his 
urine, in spite of all his exertions^ until he v/as relieved 
by suction. From that time he enjoyed good health for 
several months, yet this stoppage came on periodically, 
that is to say, as often as the stone obstructed the urethra, 
on which occasion he used to rub the part , stamp with 
his feet, and cry for help." After this relation she begged 
my pardon, adding, "one ought to conceal nothing from 
the doctor. Yet,," continued she, " I have still one cir- 
cumstance to communicate to you ; previously to the 
operation, my child had the bad habit of wetting the bed ;. 
but he has never done so since." 

In the present state of medical knowledge, it is impos' 
sible to assert v/hether the cause of the production of 
stony concretions be connected with the sensations of the 
nurse, or whether other circumstances co-operate, as we 
find snch concretions in different parts of the body, not 
only in the urethra, urine-bladder, kidneys, and the gall- 
organs, but also in the stomach and intestines of horses,^ 
oxen, goats, &c,, as just mentioned. But there is no doubt 
that they are substances of the animal body. We have 
in ourselves different mineral substances, and a sickly habit 
causes them to accumulate. I once found five tolerably 
large stones pressed in the neck of a bladder to such a deg- 
ree, that I cannot conceive how the man was able to- 
void one drop of urine. Several cases occurred to me, in 
which, a few years after the stone had been extracted, 
new ones accumulated, because the origin of the disease was 
not eradicated ; and I recommend every operator to com- 
bine an internal with an external treatment, the extrac- 
tion or the crushing of the stone being nothing but a 
palliative. 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 71 

At Bokhara, I found that the {guinea-worm ( Dracun- 
culus) occurred very frequently. At Cabul, I saw a strange 
case of this kind, in which a merchant had drunk the 
water from which it orginates a year previously at Bombay. 
The worm was at the hollow of the knee. Upon its ap- 
pearing and being pulled, it broke, and the knee was very 
much inflamed and swollen. Feeling an accumulation of 
matter, I made an incision, upon which it began to flow. 
1 kept the wound open for several days, and ordered the 
swollen parts to be embrocated with wax-oil, and in a few 
days it was entirely healed. In a severe swelling of the 
testicles, which was the consequence of an external injury, 
the same remedy proved efficacious. 

Oil distilled from wax (cerelaeum ) is employed by the 
native physicians of the East in various diseases, especially 
in paralysis, contractions, swellings, wounds, itching, im- 
potence, colds and cholera-morbus. The embrocations are 
generally performed in the rays of the sun. In cholera- 
morbus, they drink hot broth afterwards ; hot bricks are 
enveloped in rugs and applied to the soles of the feet, they 
are then covered with woollen-sheets over the head, ta 
produce perspiration. In similar cases, the Bokharians 
administer a Turcoman-sudorific remedy, with which a na- 
tive physician assured me he had cured many cholera 
patients. The medicament is as cheap as it is simple, and 
should be used in case no other can be obtained at the 
moment. They procure a quantity of wheaten bran, sift it 
seven times, and as many times wash it superficially, then 
rub it in water with the fingers, and strain it ; the strained 
water is simmered until reduced to one-half, to which they 
add some garlic and almond oil, and it is then drunk luke- 
warm. The garlic serves, as the physician told me, to 
drive away the evil spirits. The physicians of Europe may 
learn by this what remedies ought to be employed when 
patients are haunted by evil spirits, a thing which occurs 
occasionally in the case of ladies. The same doctor also in- 
formed me by what means they got rid of the cholera at 
Bokhara. A procession was arranged, during which they 



72 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, 

buried in the middle of the city a new horse-hide, which 
is easily procured there ; as the inhabitants of Bokhara eat 
more horse-flesh than any other kind of meat, and which 
is probably the cause of this odd idea. The Affghans have 
also a peculiar method of curing nervous fevers. They 
envelop the patient in the skin of a newly-killed animal 
( goat or sheep ), in which he falls into a perspiration, and 
in this state he is left for a whole night. A decoction of 
bran is also said to be a good sudorific, but considered as 
a mild one, and is not generally in use. 

To cure the guinea-worm, the natives of the East make 
use of many curious remedies, which will be found in the 
second volume. 

At Bokhara, I met two unfortunate Armenians from 
Astrakhan, who requested me to use my influence in their 
behalf. Three years previously, when Count Suchtelen was 
Governor of Orenburg, they had laid claim to a considerable 
sum due to them as their legal portion of an inheritance 
at Bokhara ; to which place they received letters of re- 
commendation from the governor, and were sent thither 
to urge their claims, with directions, should they not 
succeed, to return to Orenburg, and the Russian govern- 
ment would assist them. On their arrival there, the 
settlement of their affairs presented some difficulty, as the 
government had confiscated the legacy, under various 
pretexts. The two heirs — who, in their endeavours to 
obtain their property, seemed not to have lost all hope, 
in spite of the evasive promises they had for many years 
received — thought it requisite to use their utmost energies 
to get their rights at last ; for which purpose they solicited 
my assistance, representing to me their awkward situation, 
and saying that the Russian ambassador, who had recently 
arrived, refused to interfere, but by my influence they 
hoped to obtain a happy result. I could not reject their 
application, and by so much the more, as I was informed 
that the Russian government was desirous to negotiate 
for the liberty of its subjects then in slavery at Bokhara. 
These two ArmeniaDs were indeed in a state worse thaa 



T£IIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 73 

slavery, because they were not accidentally flung on this 
territory, but were sent hither to obtain their rights. I 
resolved therefore to interfere for them. I felt myself, 
in fact, compelled to do so ; for had I refused my assistance, 
the poor men would have been detained, in consequence of 
the heavy debts they had contracted during their three 
years' stay at Bokhara. I accordingly addressed myself in 
this affair to Hoshbegi, begging him to take pity on these 
men, and to interfere in their behalf. He received myself 
and my petition very kindly, but appeared little disposed 
to do anything for the younger of the supplicants, as he 
had uttered some threatening words when asking for justice ; 
and he added, " they may plead their cause before the 
tribunal." But the judges refused to listen to their 
petition, alleging — first, that they had not appeared to 
make their claims immediately after the death of the 
testator ; secondly, that those who appeared as heirs, 
being Russian subjects, could not be considered as legal 
claimants, but were reckoned among Christian sects, and 
treated as heretics ; and, thirdly, that the whole legacy 
being the result of a trade not tolerated in the Koran, i. e.y 
wine, it ought to have been confiscated, as it really was. 
I solicited Hoshbegi to permit me to pay the debts of 
these poor men, and to take them with me to their home 
in Russia. This I obtained without any difficulty, so I 
liquidated their debts, and took them with me, accom- 
panying the caravan with which the Russian ambassador 
also set out for that country. The most costly thing I 
carried with me from Bokhara, was a very beautiful horse, 
of a breed called argomak. This horse, the beauty of which 
was admired by every connoisseur, was provided with all 
its appurtenances ; such as a silver bridle, a Bokharian 
saddle, a richly-adorned caparison, &c. This noble animal 
was a stallion four years old. I destined it as a present 
for his Majesty the late Emperor of Austria, Francis I, with 
a view to its serving as a riding-horse and a sire. I ven- 
tured to do this as an Austrian subject, and after an absence 
of twenty years, to manifest tny loyalty and faithfulness 



74 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

to my monarch. My wish to perform this act of duty in 
the proper costume, was the cause of my appearing habited 
as a native of Bokhara, in the years 1834, 1835, and 1836, 
when travelling through Europe. 

The journey from Bokhara to Russia, which I performed 
in thiriy-five stations, was one of the most pleasant I ever 
had in the whole course of my travels, as no impediments 
from the elements, or other disastrous occurrences, happened 
during the route ; yet, to make good the proverb of Solomon 
"There exists nothing perfect in this sublunary world," 
we had a little episode, which I will here relate. Passing 
the rivar. Sir— known in antiquity under the name of 
Jaxartes — we arrived at a custom station, where they 
demanded an enormous toll, which we had not any right 
whatever to pay. An awful quarrel arose, and we were 
about preparing for a fight, when our antagonists, perceiv- 
ing our arms, began to feel a little more respect for us ; 
they still, hov/ever, continued to make a noise and to. voci- 
ferate, and made fire-signals for their brethren in the 
desert to hasten to their assistance. But the affair 
was soon settled, and we went on our way without any 
further molestation. With regard to mercantile interests, 
I must here add, that among the products and manufac- 
tures, native and foreign, of Bokhara, are lamb-skins, 
dyed linen, horses, indigo. Cashmere shawls, &c. Respect- 
ing indigo, I may observe that it was most impure stuff, 
for I observed that one-half of it was nothing but particles 
of clay, in the same shape as it is brought by the Loanis 
from Dhera-Ghasi-Khan, Moultan and Bhawulpore. How 
much might be saved in the carriage, and in duty at the 
custom-houses, if the indigo were purified previous to 
exportation I We were almost induced to take with us a 
great quantity of sarsaparilla from the desert, but I soon 
recognised it to be a mere substitute for the real article. 
Among other objects which attracted my attention in the 
desert, connected with scientific knowledge, was the kumiss 
( fermented mare's-milk ), a favourite beverage with the 
Kirgis, and also with the inhabitants of the Russian 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 75 

boundaries. I could ejive a ^re^t many proofs that the 
kumiss is a very wholesome and nutritious beverapje. It 
may suffice to mention here, that the gfovemor of OrpnburiT 
returned at that time from the Ural Mountains, where he 
had used the kumiss as a cure with great benefit. I may 
observe also, that it is introduced at the tables of the 
nobility at Orenburg and several other places. It was 
especially drunk bv weak persons and children, as a whole- 
some potion. Kumiss is a palatable and intoxicating 
drink, it being produced by fermentation, and consequently 
spirituous. They prepare it by pouring the mare's-milk into 
seasoned goat-skins, which are continually tossed about until 
it begins to ferment, According to the opinion of the Kirgises 
the kumiss is better when the milk is procured from mares 
of different colours. The fresher it is, the better for the health. 
To give the reader a slight synopsis of my journey from 
Bokhara to Russia, a little map, on which the thirty-five 
stations are traced, is annexed. 

On my arrival at Orenburg, I was greatly delighted to 
meet with several German generals, who were in the Russian 
service, and also German physicians. The deep impression 
which this meeting made upon me, can only be conceived 
by those who, like me, had for several years been deprived of 
all intercourse with their countrymen. But that enthusiasm 
was increased still more, when I was told that a new mode 
of curing diseases had been discovered, diametrically opposite 
to that which had hitherto been followed. 

Who will blame me for having this irresistible and ardent 
desire to see Europe once more ? Providence had appeared 
to yield me an opportunity of extending the horizon of my 
knowledge, for the benefit of mankind ; and the same 
internal voice which twenty years before had induced me 
to abandon my friends, my relatives and my dear native 
country, admonished me also to renounce the favor of a 
powerful ruler, the prospects of becoming powerful myself, 
and the influence by means of which I could enjoy the most 
splendid ease, in order to be instrumental in iotroducing 
a hitherto unknown healing system. 

H 



76 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

From Orenburg I continued my journey by post over 
Kazan to Nishni-Nowgorod, and I arrived, without any 
material accidents, at the latter city. It was just the time 
of the fair, to which people from the nearest and remotest 
countries were flocking, to purchase and sell their merchandise. 
Provided as I was with cash, I lent a willing ear to some 
friends, who, from their local knowledge, advised me not to 
take ready money with me, but to buy sable skins. They gave 
me this advice, as sables would not increase the bulk of 
my luggage like other merchandise, and added that the 
skins could be disposed of with considerable profit. For 
that purpose, I called on one of the principal houses 
which dealt in sable skins, where I had the opportunity 
of making the personal acquaintance of the governor of 
the place, whotn 1 met by accident. I made a bargain ia 
his presence, the merchant engaging to be content with 
a profit of ten per cent. This induced me to purchase 
to a considerable amount, which I immediately paid, after 
having received the goods. During these transactions, 
the governor asked my interpreter who I was, whence I 
came, and whither I was going. Having got satisfactory 
information, and having learned at the same time that 
1 was in possession of a beautiful horse of the finest 
breed, be requested me to show it to him when it arrived. 
When 1 left the merchant, my interpreter told me that the 
sable-dealer wished that none should be acquainted with 
our arrangements, and that he would send me, the following 
morning, a man who knew well how the skins ought to be 
packed. This circumstance created in my mind a suspicion 
of his dishonesty. To ascertain the fact, I went early on 
the following morning to a merchant whom I knew, and com- 
municated to him my impression. After having examined 
the skins, he declared there was not a doubt about my 
having been cheated by the dealer, and he himself offered 
to supply me with the same quality of article for half the 
price which I had paid. He advised me to go instantly to 
the merchant, and propose to him either to add a portion 
more of sabies, or that I would make him a present of the ten . 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 77 

per cent., and he should take back his goods, and return me 
my money. But he was not willing to yield to either one or 
the other, so I could only follow the advice of my friends, 
and inform the police of the fraud, in order to get back my 
money. Whilst at the police-office, I was, to ray surprise, 
arrested by an order of the governor, and taken before him. 
The first inquiry he made was about my passport ; I pro- 
duced it, and after a strict examination of its contents, he 
began to question me, why I had let seven days pass without 
having presented it to the legal authorities? I simply replied, 
that living in a public hotel, where no one asked me for 
it, I thought such a course unnecessary. This reply seemed 
unsatisfactory to the governor. He dwelt upon the fact, 
that as I knew fourteen different languages, I ought to 
be acquainted with the Russian, for I was then conversing 
with him in French •, he also said that as I had asserted 
I was an European Christian, clad in oriental costume, 
I must enter the category of spies, especially as I had been 
audacious enough to attempt to injure one of the most 
respectable mercantile-houses, by casting a blemish on 
its character, and for which he would himself be security. 
I was led back again to the police-office as a prisoner, 
where I was detained from nine o'clock in the morning till 
three in the afternoon, without thc'r offering me so much 
as a seat. Meanwhile a police officer was dispatched to 
the hotel, where my room was opened, and everything 
rummaged, but they could find nothing suspicious. Whilst 
they were thus engaged in the examination of mv effects, 
my horse arrived, and was put in the stable. When the 
police officer -saw my horse, he came to me and pressed me 
to sell it to him, but I declared that having destined it 
as a present to my legitimate sovereign, 1 would not sell 
it for any price. At three o'clock, I was informed that the 
passport which they gave me at Orenburg, and which 
ought to have been sufficient to convey me to my native 
country, must remain at the police-office, and instead of 
that, I was to receive an official certificate, with which I 
was ordered to depart for Moscow within twenty-four 



7S THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

hours. After having left the police-office, I waited on 
some of my German friends, who pressed me to leave Nishni- 
Nowgorod as soon as possible, as a rumour was current 
that the emperor had arrived at Moscow, and that post- 
horses had already been ordered to bring him to Nowgorod ; 
so that the greatest danger menaced me, namely, being 
shut up in a dungeon, to prevent my making complaints 
to the monarch. These friends accompanied me to my 
hotel ; but how great was our astonishment on seeing the 
door of my room open, and a part of my effects stolen f 
But that astonishment reached its height when, on going 
into the stable to speak to the groom, we found hira 
absent, and the horse bleeding, and on a closer ex- 
amination, saw that the tendons of his legs had been cut 
across. It was quite natural that the suspicion of the 
theft and mutilation of the horse could only fall on the 
absent groom, and as his immediate capture was impossible, 
I was obliged to arrest the Bokharian merchant who was 
security for him. I addressed myself to the police-officer, 
who was instructed by my friends, and who came in 
person to make an inspection at the hotel. After the 
imprisonment of the Bokharian, the groom, who had 
escaped, came of himself to take the place of the captive. 
It being impossible now to take the horse with me, I sold 
him for a mere trifle to one of my friends, an Englishman, 
Mr. Strubing, who bought him for a sire, and who was so 
kind as to take upon himself to manage my affairs, for which 
I gave him full power, and a document was drawn on 
stamped paper, in the presence of the official authorities. 
Soon after my arrival at Moscow, I received a letter 
from Mr. Strubing, informing me that my groom had been 
released immediately after my departure, without any 
further process. The merchant, M. Lomoff, with whom 
I transacted the business of the sable skins at Nowgorod, 
having been a citizen resident at Moscow, I thought it but 
right to lay the case before his Excellency Prince Galitzin, 
Governor of Moscow. But great was my astonishment at 
my uafricadly reception by the Friace, who said be bad 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. ^<y 

not the best opinion of my character, on account of the 
bad reports which had reached him. I met with the same 
fate at Count Benkendorf's, on whom I called when he 
was there with the suite of the Emp>eror. It is impossible 
to conceive the difficulties I had to struggle with in get- 
ting a passport for the continuation of my journey to St» 
Petersburgh, as they had retained mine at Nowgorod. 

As I was naturally extremely desirous to restore my 
injured reputation, I required that a commercial jury should 
be summoned to decide between me and Lomoff. Several 
months passed away fruitlessly, but at last that jury, con- 
sisting of two Russians, two Germans, and two Greek 
merchants dealing in furs, decided the matter in my favor. 
Lomoff would have been obliged to return the money had he 
not in the interval become bankrupt, but one of his relatives 
received the skins and paid me a part of the amount. 
During the settlement of the above transaction, I made an 
excursion to St. Petersburgh, of which city I had heard so 
much, and what I saw there exceeded my expectations. I 
will not mention the delightful situation of this city, nor speak 
of its magnificent palaces, churches, and public buildings ^ 
neither will I depict the imposing aspect of the majestic- 
flowing waters of the Neva ; nor describe the various other 
external objects which have already been painted by others.. 
I will only mention one particular circumstance, which 
rendered my stay in the metropolis, although for a very 
short time, most agreeable. It was the kind reception I 
met with among all classes of the inhabitants, from the 
highest to the lowest ; especially among the former. I still 
retain in my memory one angel-like image, which appeared 
to me in the person of the Grand Duchess Helena. This 
intellectual and illustrious lady invited me to call on her, 
when she heard of my arrival, because she bad been in- 
formed that I had seen at Lahore Victor Jaquemont, 
whose correspondence she was then readinef. Her Imperial 
Highness conversed with me about different matters for 
two hours. She inquired principally about Cabul, Bokhara, 
and India, their political; physical and moral condition,. 



So THIKTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

and even the minutest particulars concerning those countries. 
Neither can I omit here to mention one circumstance, 
trifling as it is, for which I feel myself grateful even now. 
AVhen I was on the following day on my way to see the 
Mint, as my oriental costume made me known everywhere, 
when I met the carriage of the Grand Duchess, that noble 
lady saluted me very kindly the instant she perceived me. 

Being a native of Kronstadt in Transylvania, I thought 
it but right while in the vicinity of the Russian town of 
the same name, to visit it, a desire which must be excused, 
as that place enjoys a reputation for its nautical importance ; 
but it happens very often during life that difficulties 
oppose our plans, and thus it was this time with me, I was 
to have gone there by steamer early in the morning, but 
a thick fog hovering in the atmosphere, rendering it im- 
possible to start at the appointed hour, the crew waited 
for clearer weather. As it did not change, we departed 
at nine o'clock, but not far from the harbour we ran on 
a sand bank, and were not able to move any further. 
Happily there appeared an empty steamer coming up the 
river from Kronstadt, as if sent by Providence to our rescue. 
We went on board, and proceeded, after a short delay, 
to the place of our destination. On the steamer there was 
a respectably dressed young man, who spoke German, and 
whose behaviour demonstrated him to be of good breeding. 
After a conversation, in which he learned that my intention 
was to stay only that day and one night at Kronstadt, he 
proposed to me, in a very engaging manner, to take up 
my quarters in his house, an offer which I heartily accepted. 
On our arrival at Kronstadt, I accompanied him home ; 
but the first sight of his rooms produced in me a very 
repugnant sensation ; for everything in his abode indicated 
disorder and uncleanliness. My displeasure increased still 
more, when, after a short stay in his hospitable abode, 
he declared to me that he was ruined, having just lost 
in three days all his fortune by card-playing at Peters- 
burgh. We had not finished our conversation, which took' 
place close to the wiudow that looked into the yard,' 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 8 1 

when on a sudden the gate opened, and a troop of chimney- 
sweepers rushed in, whom my host informed me were 
his own servants, I looked for an excuse to leave as soon 
as possible the house of the chimney-sweeper ; and after- 
wards I was informed that this profession is a very lucrative 
one in Russia, and that those who follow it are generally 
rich and respectable men. 

Of what further occurred to me after my return to St. 
Petersburgh, I have nothing to relate, for I left the capital 
immediately after my arrival there, and set off for Moscow. 
The arrangement of my affairs having now been complet- 
ed, I felt no stronger desire than that of again seeing 
my native country. It was in the winter season, and the 
ground was covered with snow, when about the middle of 
November, I left the old and venerable capital of Russia. 
I had my own carriage, and passed through the govern- 
ments of Tulai, Orel, Kiew, Volhynia and Bukowina, and 
also through Czernowitz, Dorna, and Bistritz, to Kronstadt, 
my dear and beloved native town, where I arrived on 
Christmas-eve, in the year 1834, by the same road on which 
I had twenty years before left my home, full of lofty 
idea", and impelled by my desire to see the Eastern world. 

The season during my journey was inconvenient for 
me, as it would have been for any one in my situation. 
Although I had no longer to struggle against wild beasts 
and Arab robbers, yet the severe cold was almost insup- 
portable, and still more so were the vexations and extor- 
tions I had everywhere to endure from greedy Polish 
Jews, and cunning treacherous servants. But even at the 
moment, when I had already left the Austrian frontier 
behind me, and fancied I saw my native land, I was near 
losing my life. It was in the middle of December when 
I ascended one of those snow-covered Carpathian summits, 
a short time before sunset. I had alighted from my 
carriage on account of the steepness of the road, when the 
vehicle suddenly overturned, and was precipitated down 
a tremendous precipice, toeether with the three horses and 
the coachman, and there they remained all the night long. 



82 THIRTY-FIVE VEARS IN THE EAST. 

As for myself, I took refuge in a chardak ( cabin where 
the boundary guards reside), and spent the night there. 
In the morning, my equipage was brought up by the 
efforts of the soldiers, with the aid of a great number of 
oxen, fetched from the neighbouring village. Who could 
have imagined that the coachman and the horses would 
have been alive after such a terrible fall ? And yet the 
former was only hurt, and the latter lamed ; but the coach 
was broken, and required repairs. 

I cannot conclude this first part of my adventures 
without giving some account of the deep impression I ex- 
perienced on treading again the soil of my native country, 
after an absence of so many years, in which I had had 
to struggle against so many difficulties. But the feelings 
of my heart reached their highest pitch, on entering those 
rooms in which I had passed my earliest happy age, and 
not missing either of my dear and beloved parents. My 
voice faltered, and tears began to flow down my cheeks, 
when I saw once more, after an absence of twenty years, 
my father, mother, brothers and sisters, pressed them to 
my throbbing heart, received their welcome, and felt their 
kisses. As they were informed of the day of my arrival, 
they had postponed the christening of my brother's 
daughter, and fixed it for the moment of my return, in 
order to heighten the solemnity of that ceremony, and to 
have me for her godfather. For that purpose, we went 
that very afternoon to the principal church, in which I 
had myself been christened, where a multitude of the citizens 
were already assembled to witness the holy act, the news 
of my arrival having spread through the town with the 
rapidity of lightning ; some were attracted by curiosity, eager 
to see me in my extraordinary and splendid oriental cos- 
tume. I also fancy that many of them were desirous of 
knowing whether I had lost the fluency with which I for- 
merly spoke the languages of our country ( Saxon, German, 
Hungarian, and VValachian ). When they heard me speak 
them with the same facility as formerly, the interest they 
took in my person was still further increased. My parents 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 83 

and friends admired my oriental costame so muc^, that 
they requested me not to change it ; aiid I yielded to their 
request, and afterwards visited many of the capitals of 
Europe in that dress. 

I passed the remainder of the season at Kronstadt io 
the most agreeable manner ; after which, I proceeded on my 
journey towards Vienna, passing through Hungary. Thence, 
I went to Trieste and Venice, Milan, Genoa, Nice and Mar- 
seilles ; from this last, I made a short excursion to St. 
Tropez, to see General Allard's family, from whom I learned 
that the general had left India and was expected at 
Bordeaux. I proceeded to that city, and, after a three 
weeks' stay, I was so fortunate as to meet with the general, 
who brought me the box containing the antiques which I 
had forwarded to him from Cabul. I afterwards visited 
Paris, and came to England, by Calais and Dover, My com- 
panion on this journey was my brother, to whose daughter I 
had stood godfather. His accompanying me was owing to 
a strange and unfortunate accident which had befallen him. 

On the very day on which I wrote to him from 
Orenburg, announcing my approach towards home, he 
had lost nearly all his fortune by a destructive fire, through 
which he was almost reduced to despair. In order to restore 
him to his former activity, I proposed that he should 
accompany me on my tour through Europe, which he 
willingly did. 

At Paris, my steps were first directed towards the 
domicile of the father of Homoeopathy, the celebrated 
Doctor Hahnemann. In Russia, I had been already told 
of the prodigious effects of his new healing system, and 
I earnestly desired to learn it at the source itself. The 
magnanimous old man and his lovely young wife received 
me in the most friendly manner, and I must not omit to 
mention, that the open and good-natured Homoeopathist 
made many interesting revelations to me respecting his 
new method of curing. It was particularly important to 
me that Hahnemann recommended to me his apothecary 
at Kothen, Doctor Lehman. 

IS 



84 TIIIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

The voyage from London to Hamburg, which I performed 
in a steamer, lasted a day longer than ordinary, and was one 
of the most dreadful and annoying I have ever experienced; 
We .were overtaken by a tempest, by which the vessel 
was tossed about in such a manner that all the passengers 
suffered from sea-sickness. If I say that our feelings 
were those of a person whose bowels are being cut through 
"with sharp knives, the comparison would remain far behind 
the real fact. At Berlin, I met with an old friend, 
Doctor Ehrenberg, the naturalist, whom I accompanied 
many years ago to the ruins of Balbeck ; he was in 
good health, and we conversed about that journey ; but 
Doctor Hemprich, his then travelling companion, had 
already left this world. According to Hahnemann's advice, 
I introduced myself, at Kothen, to Doctor Lehman, from 
whom I bought a considerable quantity of homceopathic 
medicines. From Kothen I went to Leipsic, Dresden and 
Toplitz, at which place was that celebrated congress of 
the Emperors of Austria and. Russia, the King of Prussia, 
and the most celebrated diplomatists, as also a great number 
of the elite of the nobility. It may easily be imagined, 
that on such an occasion there was no lack of festivals 
and amusements, in which I took some share, as I met 
with a very kind reception, owing, perhaps, to my oriental 
costume. 

From Toplitz I returned to Kronstadt, my native coun- 
try, in order to pass the carnival there among my relations. 
In the spring of the year 1836, I went to Vienna, on 
particular business, and I stayed there till the autumn. 
In the summer of the same year, the long-dreaded guest, 
cholera, was raging in that capital. I myself felt the first 
symptoms of that dreadful and destroying epidemic. I 
had spasms and a diarrhcea ; I therefore lost no time in 
applying my remedies, taking, every half-hour, a homoeo- 
pathic dose of ipecacuanha. This remedy proved quite 
efficacious, and I was fortunate enough to be entirely 
recovered in the space of six hours. 

As there are many substitutes ior ipecacuanha, I think 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 85 

it not superfluous to mention on this occasion, that it is 
only the genuine drug that can produce the desired effect, 
"ithat by which I was restored, was from Doctor Lehman. 
The good result which I experienced in myself and others, 
from adopting the homojopathic system, induced me to 
extend the practice to a larger circle of patients. For 
that purpose I chose the capital of the Ottoman empire, 
which I thought particularly suitable, as it was at no 
great distance from my native country, and because I 
was acquainted with the oriental languages, habits and 
manners. Besides that, my pecuniary circumstances were 
rather embarrassed, as the reader may be aware, owing to the 
losses I had sustained in different countries, partcularly ia 
Bokhara ( by the Armenians ) and in Russia (by my sable 
transactions). To carry out my plan, I petitioned for a 
passport to Constantinople, which I obtained without any 
difficulty. 

I departed from Vienna, passed through Kronstadt and 
Bukarest for Gallaz, where I embarked, not as previously 
at Varna in an open vessel, but in a steamer bound to 
Constantinople. Contrary to my expectation, the plague 
was raging there at that time, and the Europeans kept 
themselves shut up in their houses, far from any contact 
with the world. Under such circumstances, I had no alter- 
native but to wait for another opportunity. To do this 
with more comfort, I hired a small house on the shores 
of the Bosphorus, in a village situated in the most pleasant 
part of that country, from which I enjoyed a beautiful 
prospect. On the very evening of my taking possession 
of the cottage, I was called to attend a Greek lady- 
living in my neighbourhood, who required my medical 
assistance. I was told that she had a fever. I found 
her in bed, complaining of being uneasy and costive, ac- 
companied with a headache, so I ordered her an emollient 
clyster, which I myself was obliged to administer, as no- 
body could undertake to do it. But, to my alarm, I was 
informed on the following morning that she had died 
during the night of'the plague, her husband having preceded 



S6 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

her bat a few days from the same complaint. The house 
of the deceased was immediately shut up. At that time 
the quarantine establishments at Constantinople were 
still in their original state of organisation, ray small house 
therefore remained free, and luckily it was not infected 
with the plague. The circumstance of my not being 
myself affected by it — neither had I conveyed it to my 
household — induced me to believe that I had not any 
disposition to be attacked by that pestilential disease. 
I was also of opinion that the plague was not contagious. 
In order to have some experience in this matter, I tendered 
my services at once to the plague-hospital at Pera, where 
the poor patients were left to their fate, as no medical 
assistance or any other aid was to be had. Without any 
authority or permission, I attended them at my own ex- 
pense. I proceeded, to the satisfaction of all the attendants 
and patients, to treat the infected according to the homoeo- 
pathic principle, and my endeavours were mostly crowned 
with success. All this, effected by the most simple treat- 
ment, did not fail to procure me, in a very short time, a 
great reputation ; so that, after the extinction of the plague, 
and the abolition of all quarantine, I was in great request 
among the most respectable private families. But, before I 
proceed to prove the efficacy of the minute doses of homcEO- 
pathic medicines, I must first speak of a special remedy, 
which proved very efficacious, employed as a prophylactic 
or curative ; and, I dare to say, with respect to the plague, 
it might be considered as a specific. 

During my stay at Constantinople I frequently had an 
opportunity of making the observation that many indivi- 
duals, especially Armenians, wore a string, to which was 
attached a bean, called Strychnos Faba St. Ignatii, as a 
preventive against the plague. Having been informed that 
this bean was acknowledged to be an effective one, I ad- 
ministered it in minute doses, as a medicine, and that with 
the best success. The particulars will be mentioned in the 
course of this work. 

Among the above-mentioned private bouses in which 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 87 

they relied on my medical skill, was that of M. Shabert. 
The head of this respectable family had been formerly 
invested with the office of English interpreter. 

It is the duty of a physician to have patience when he 
has occasion to attend old ladies ; and thus I must crave 
the reader's indulgence while 1 relate what Mrs. Shabert 
communicated to me. She began thus :— " A young Greek 
stabbed my son with a stiletto ; and, at the moment when 
he was about to cry out for assistance, the Greek was so 
malicious as to thrust the weapon into his mouth and cut 
a blood-vessel, from which a violent bleeding ensued, and 
it could only be stopped by immediate surgical assistance. 
He was taken to the consulate, in front of which it happen- 
ed, and where he was employed. By the application of 
red-hot iron, the blood was stanched ; but two or three 
days subsequently, the bleeding began afresh, and the 
patient felt exhausted ; when the bleeding was renewed 
for the third time, he became much worse. On the ensu- 
ing night, he was restless, and in a state of great perturba- 
tion from his dreams. It appeared to him as if his adver- 
sary was running towards him, with the stiletto in his 
grasp. The attendant physicians, thinking this symptom 
to be the forerunner of another flow of blood, declared the 
patient's state to be very critical, being persuaded that, 
upon another bleeding, death was inevitable." In this awful 
position, the family proposed to the physicians to allow them 
a trial of homoeopathy. They readily consented, in the 
hope of meeting with a good opportunity of rendering 
homoeopathy ridiculous, and showing the public the inutility 
of that system. Mrs. Shabert having finished, her husband 
requested me to accompany him to the consulate, where 
his son was then lying, in order that I might cure him. 
I found the youth very much reduced, but tranquil in 
mind. His surgeon, a Frenchman, who was present, or 
rarher was waiting for me, told me he had, by a repetition, 
stanched the blood with a red-hot iron and other styptics, 
but that another bleeding was to be feared as soon as the 
fcab should come from the wound, and as the parents 



gg THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

of the patient were anxious to try homoeopathy, he consent- 
ed, and I administered, in his presence, three lilliputian 
pills of Aranea diadema (X"'^^ ), and then took my leave. 
When I called on my patient in the morning, he told me 
that he had passed a quiet night, that his former physician 
had already been there, and on hearing that no bleeding 
had taken place, he had prescribed for him some pills ; 
but he again and again repeated, that he felt no inclina- 
tion to take them, as he preferred my medicine, which had 
proved so beneficial. Whilst I was preparing the medica- 
ment, the doctor, who was an Italian, came in, and was about 
to fasten a quarrel on me ; but old M. Shabert took him 
by the arm and led him into another room, from which 
he disappeared, and I saw him no more. I repeated the 
medicine for eight days, at the end of which time he was 
completely recovered. I must observe here, that the Aranea 
diadema was prepared by Doctor Lehmann, at Kothen, 
whose medicines, as I have already mentioned, were 
recommended to me by Hahnemann. 

What did the surgeon do in the meanwhile ? To show 
that the recovery of the young man was the effect of his 
treatment, he ordered a dog to be brought from the bazaar, 
and cut through its crural artery, and then applied his 
styptic ( creosote ) ; but seeing that the wound did not heal, 
he allowed the dog to escape, and a short time afterwards 
the animal was found dead in the street. 

Another case occurred in the above-mentioned family, 
with a female, which may serve as an example how small 
homoeopathic doses not only produce effects, but sometimes 
cause great and beneficial excitement. 

A sister of the young Shabert was troubled for many 
years with a megrim. This evil was accompanied with a 
nervous pain in the face, which made itself sensible at 
intervals of three or four days, in the early part of the 
day, like a disguised fever. In the moment of one of these 
paroxysms, I administered to her a dose of pulsatilla ; but 
afterwards she became so much worse, that her husband, 
Siguor Salzani, came to me at ten o'clock at night, ia 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 89 

great alarm, to tell me that his wife had become almost 
mad, and that they had to use great efforts to prevent her 
from throwing herself out of the window. But this was her 
last paroxysm, at least she had no more during my stay at 
Constantinople. The dose of pulsatilla which I administered 
to her, was one drop of the third dilution on a lump of 
sugar ; the tincture I had brought with me from Vienna. 
At that period, the prince Abdool Mesjeet ( now Sultan ) 
fell dangerously sick, and I was told that his royal father had 
dismissed all the physicians, English, French, Greek and Turk, 
on account of their,^ unsuccessful treatment, and that my re- 
putation and fortune would be established if I succeeded in 
curing him. I replied that my rule was — "Noli accedere, nisi 
vocatus," adding, that only on the request of the Sultaa 
would I undertake to attend the royal prince ; his majesty, 
however, was fortunate enough to find a physician who per- 
formed the cure in a few days. The Sultan ordered those 
doctors who had attended his son formerly, to make their 
appearance again in the seraglio, and qresented him to them, 
asking whether they thought he was perfectly recovered. 
They expressed their astonishment at this unexpected and 
sudden recovery, and wished much to see that miraculous 
doctor, who had performed such a cure, in so short a time, 
The Sultan opened the door of a side room, out of which 
there issued an Armenian lady, in Turkish costume, whom 
he presented to them, smiling, as the miraculous doctor to 
whom his son owed his recovery, to the shame of the 
assembled doctors. To bestow on her greater honor, he 
ordered it to be publicly declared in all the Christian church- 
es, that Mariam Khatoon ( Lady Mary ) had saved the life 
of the royal prince and was the only person who could cure 
the geli?ijik, that being the Turkish term, derived from gelin^ 
bride, and means the bride's disease. In Greek it is called 
nymphizze ; it is a kind of cachexia, or hydrops alba. The 
royal Prince caught it in consequence of the measles, and 
they were in fear for his life, as his younger brother had 
died of the measles, having been improperly treated and bled 
during the disease. 



90 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

As to the treatment which the Armenian lady employed, 
the following fact, which I insert, was generally rumored : — 
she placed the Prince in a heated oven ( tandoor ), which 
caused a profuse perspiration ; after that, she fumigated 
him with the burning flesh of a weazel, also called 
nymphizze^ and his body was rubbed with oil. Besides 
this external treatment, she administered to him some 
medicines, of which the following three substances were 
the chief ingredients — ambergris, cochineal insects, and 
earth-worms. She ordered the Prince to observe a very 
strict regimen, not permitting him meat, or even broth, 
only light digestible fish ( gelinjik balugi), because of its 
name being like that of the disease. This disease occur- 
ring frequently in the capital, and weasel flesh being a costly 
thing, the druggists there sell it dried. There are many 
Christian women, Greeks and Armenians, at Constantinople, 
practising the cure of that malady, the principal remedy 
for which, I am told, is Album Graecum (white dung of dogs). 
It is a question whether phosphate of lime might not 
take the place of that disgusting remedy, as it consists of 
nearly the same substances. That disease is said to occur 
in consequence of wrongly-treated acute eruptions, especially 
the measles, or in consequence of sudden fright or excessive 
fatigue : it gradually increases in virulence. It is to be 
recognised by a pulsation behind the ears and other parts ; 
the pulse on the wrist is felt more up the arm than 
usual ; the eyes and feet are swollen ; the lips are pale ; 
asthma is felt in walking, with weakness in the knees ; 
finally, a slow consuming fever follows, which is succeeded 
by death. 

I remained only two years at Constantinople, from the 
autumn of 1836 to that of 1838. During that time, my 
homoeopathic practice was extensive, as there were only 
myself and the private physician to the Russian ambassador 
who practised the new system ; and it was so lucrative 
that I had no idea of leaving that place so soon, still 
less of returning to Lahore, until I learned from the 
Austrian internuncio, Baron Sturmer, who was in quarantine 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. QI 

at Malta, and who had met witli General Ventura, that 
the maharajah had ordered the general to make inquiries 
for me in Europe, and to persuaoe me to go back tj 
Lahore. Accordingly, the general invited me to accompany 
him thither, after the expiration of his leave of absence in 
the autuoon. I yielded to this invitation, and went in 
company with the general from Alexandria to Bombay, 
whence he proceeded alone, with the utmost speed, to Lahore, 
as Runjeet Sing was dangerously ill, and as at that time 
the English were preparing to place the Shah Soojah on 
the throne of Cabul. 

General Ventura was accompanied by a shav.-l merchant, 
named Monsieur Le Boeuf, and a captain of cavalry, M. 
Mouton, with his lady. These three persons the general 
requested me to accompany to Lahore, as they were unable 
to speak Hindostanee. 

At Bombay we went on board a native vessel, and 
sailed to Gogo, and thence we continued our way, partly 
in carriages, partly on camels. Ampng our fellow travellers 
there were some native shawl merchants from Umritsir. 
We took the shortest road, through Palee, Ajmir, Hansi, 
and Loodiana. We were hardly two days' journey from 
Gogo, when we were overtaken by two English captains, who 
had been ordered to examine our papers ; for they looked 
upon us as if we were Russian spies. At Palee the plague 
was raging, as it had then been for the last thfee years. 
Previous to our arrival there, we passed a very pleasant even- 
ing with the family of an English captain. On this occasion 
I made the acquaintance of an English physician, Dr. Keir, 
who informed me that the English physicians in India do not 
agree in their views respecting the plague at Palee : for 
some of them consider the disease to be a pestilential fever 
peculiar to India, while others declare it to be the same 
plague that was so common in the East, and especially 
in Turkey and Egypt. He told me he would be very 
glad if I would write to him my opinion about it, should 
I on ray journey observe the disease, as he considered it 
might be of great importance both to himself and to 
i6 



92 THIRTY- FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

science, because I had had so much opportunity for 
studying the nature of the plague at Constantinople, add- 
ing that he intended to publish my report. 

About noon we arrived at the infected Palee, where we 
ordered our tents to be pitched near to the large marsh, 
opposite to which the town lies. The first sight which 
presented itself to our eyes was the funeral trains of several 
of the inhabitants. After dinner, at two o'clock, I repaired 
to the governor, who was a Hindoo, and told him I was a 
traveller and a physician, and that I wished to see a few 
infected persons, and administer to them my medicines 
gratis, if he would kindly send some one to accompany me. 
He received me very affably, and yielded to my request. 
The man who accompanied me had not the trouble to 
escort me far, as in the very next house there were several 
patients, some of whom had only a short time to live. At 
these visits 1 neglected no circumspection and precaution. I 
never entered a house, but caused the patients to be 
brought before the door, where I examined them, writing 
down their names and their statements, and administering 
to them the remedies, and I departed without having 
touched any of them. The aspect of the town itself offered 
a sad spectacle : only now and then I met with a human 
being : the bazaars and shops were closed ; they told me 
that the greater part of the inhabitants had either died, or 
left the t6wn ; and numbers of houses were quite deserted. 
The infected died in general on the third or fourth day ; 
and scarcely one among twenty recovered. I saw carbun- 
cles, buboes, bleeding at the nose — in one word all that I 
had seen in the hospital at Constantinople. I no longer, 
therefore, doubted that the disease was a most virulent 
plague. It is true, that it wis not the plague of Turkey, 
Arabia or Egypt, but one peculiar to India; Palee being 
a province of that part of Asia. At four o'clock the same 
afternoon I returned to our tent, and retired to rest at the 
ordinary time, in the enjoyment of the best of health ; 
and I should have slept longer than usual, if Madame 
j^Mouton had not come to awaks me, and annoLince that 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 93 

the camels were ready for our departure. The moment I 
began to rise. I felt a pain in my groin ; and a presenti- 
ment of having been infected with the plague, caused 
a rush of blood towards my heart, so that I had the 
feeling of one who had been stabbed with a dagger. The 
pain in the groin, the fever and my anxiety increased 
rapidly ; and it was with dif^culty that I moved a few 
steps, in order to examine the painful part, upon which I 
discovered some buboes, the size of peas. I felt a burning 
pain, so I placed myself in the kajaweh (basket) on my 
camel, and we departed. The station we had to reach was 
five miles distant ; the reason why we made so short a 
journey was, that our only object was to quit the* region 
of the plague, and even now I look upon it as fortunate 
that I was removed to a place where the healthy air probab- 
ly aided the efTect of the medicine which I had taken. As 
soon as we arrived at our station, I took some of the small 
pills of the above-mentioned Stryconos Faba St. Ignatii. 
Although Palee alone was infected by the plague, still the 
inhabitants of the village did not allow us to enrer it ; they, 
however, brought us all we were in want of, and took the 
money from our hands without any scruple. During my 
scientific excursion to Palee, my fellow-travellers had shot 
some ducks on the marshes, and these were prepared for 
our lunch. I was invited to partake of the repast, but did 
Dot feel any inclination to eat, as I was burning with fever, 
and my pain was almost insupportable ; but not to cause 
suspicion, I took my place at the table, and the bits which 
I conveyed with one hand to my mouth, I transferred 
with the other to the napkin ; this I performed with the 
skill of an adept. After dinner, I repeated the dose of the 
same medicine, laid down, and covered myself all over, and 
in a short time I began to perspire to such a degree, 
that my mattress was wetted through. In consequence 
of this perspiration, I got rid of the fever and anxiety, 
and entertained the hope of being restored to health, al- 
though the pains in the groin still continued. The swell- 
ing of the glands remained for three weeks, as I did not 



94 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

employ any local remedy. After my complete recovery; 
I wrote to the English physician ( on whose account I had 
visited the infected town of Palee ) the result of my ex- 
perience, and read the letter to my companions, who mani- 
fested their astonishment, and blamed me for having ex- 
posed them to the infection of such a dangerous epidemic. 
My answer was, that I only did my duty as a physician, and 
that those who were not pleased with such proceedings 
ought not to travel in the society of a physician. 

I cannot tell how it was that 1 caught the plague, in spite 
of all my precautions, unless it was that when I was entering 
the town, there was a violent wind blowing, whirling the 
pestiferous dust up into the air 5 and this might have com- 
municated the virus to my body externally, and even 
internally — externally, by absorption through the lachrymal 
glands of the eyes, the pituitous membrane of the nostrils, 
and the cavity of the ear ; internally, by the respiration of 
the lungs. The infection was not produced by immediate 
contact ; had that been the cause, I should certainly not have 
escaped it at Constantinople if the predisposition to it lies 
in every one. At this time I must have had a predisposition 
for the contagion, for some days before I had felt an itch- 
ing in the body, and a kind of plethora, owing to the irre- 
gular manner of I'ving which is consequent on the incon- 
veniences and difficulties of long journeys. It is certain 
that the plague does not require a long time to develop 
itself, as it made its appearance a few hours after my visit- 
ing the patients. In some cases an interval of two or three 
days may occur before the symptoms are visible. The 
malaria of Palee, I believe, is generated by the exhalation 
of the immense marsh, whither thousands of birds and' 
reptiles resort, and which serves at the same time as a de- 
pository for all the substances ejected from the town. 
The government could easily prevent the obnoxious influ- 
ence of this marsh, by converting it into fertile ground. 

Arrived at Lahore, I found my former patron, the 
maharajah, Runjeet Sing, seated on a chair, with swollen 
feet, aud making himself understood by gestures and signs 



Page 94 





MAHARAJII RUNJEET SING 



MAIIARAJH KURRUCK SING 





KONWAR NO-NEHAL SING 



MAHARAJH SHE RE SIN' 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 95 

with his hands ; his organs of speech being paralysed to 
such a degree, that he was not able to utter a single arti- 
culate sound, and other means of imparting his thoughts 
were not in his possession, as he never had learned to 
write. 

From time to time I had occasion to relate many of the 
cures effected by the new method of homoeopathy, by the 
aid of which I had cured myself in Vienna of the cholera^ 
and lately in Hindoostan of the plague. Although they 
did not doubt the truth of my assertions, it was not with- 
out difficulty that they could prevail on themselves to 
trust me with the treatment of the maharajah, because the 
favourable season — it being spring — allowed the native 
physicians to rely on other trials which they had to make : 
meanwhile I succeeded in some homoeopathic cures quite 
to my satisfaction. But the greatest sensation produced,, 
was by a cure which I undertook at the request of the 
minister, raja Dhyan Sing. He committed to my medical 
care a native of Cashmere, Aboo Ibrahim, commander of 
his jesails ( camel-artillery ), in whose head, ten years 
previously, a bullet had been lodged^ at an affair with the 
Affghans, and which no native surgeon had been able to 
extract, and in consequence he was paralysed on one side^ 
I trepanned him, and extracted the bullet^ which was 
stuck beneath the skull, anH pressed the brain, without, how- 
ever, affectiag that organ. My patient having been a 
drunkard, and troubled with indigestion in consequence of 
his weakened stomach, I administered to him some physic,, 
to accelerate his recovery ; and I succeeded in restoring 
him to perfect health, in the short space of two months. 
When relieved from his hemiplegy, I presented him to the 
minister, and he introduced him to the maharaja. 

Meanwhile, the excessive heat had come on. At this 
time the fakeer Azeez-oo-Deen came unexpectedly and 
called on me, as the native physicians were unable to im- 
prove the health of the maharajah. This man, who had 
formerly been physician in ordinary to the king, told me 
that the maharajah had never taken any remedy prescribed 



g6 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, 

by a European physician, and that he used to give all the 
remedies which had been ordered him by the Enplisb 
doctors, Murray, Steel, and Macgregor, to his servants, to- 
try the effect on them ; but that he was now resolved 
to take my medicines, which I was to prepare in his 
presence. This I promised to do. It was then mid-day, the 
time when the durbar ( assembly ) leaves the palace, so, 
accompanied by the fakeer, I presented myself to the 
king. I found with him only the minister, Dhyan Sing. 
I had brought with me the tinctura dulcamara, and three 
empty corked little phials. First of all, I asked for a 
gudwai ( water-carrier ), and ordered him to bring the 
spirit that the maharajah was in the habit of drinking ; 
this had been distilled, in my presence, from Cabul grapes, 
and it was rectified, because Runjeet Sing preferred strong 
spirits. I put the three empty phials into the hands of 
the gudwai, and ordered them to be rinsed with the same 
spirit, and afterwards each of them to be half filled with 
spirit, about one drachm in each phial. When this was 
done, I put just one drop of the essence of dulcamara 
( woody-nightshade) into one of those phials which the 
water-catrier held in his hand, and I ordered him to cork 
it and shake it. Then I desired the fakeer to mark it 
number "one," and I put a drop out of it into the second 
phial, causing it to be corked and shaken like the first, 
and marked number "two". In the same manner, the 
third dilution was made, and number " three " was marked 
on it. From this last, I ordered one single drop to be 
let fall on a lump of sugar, which, at my request, the 
maharajah put into his mouth, where it was retained until 
dissolved. I ordered the same dose to be administered 
to the patient every morning and evening. 

During the preparation of the medicine, some persons 
who were standing by could not forbear smiling ; and the 
fakeer himself was of opinion that such a minute dose 
could not be hurtful, should it even be supposed to be 
poison. But what was the result ? On the first day there 
>vas no sensible amelioration in the health of the maharajah ; 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 97 

T?n the second day he felt somewhat better -, and on the 
third he was in such a merry humor that, at five o'clock 
in the afternoon, he ordered the minister, Dhyan Sing, 
to put a pair of gold bracelets on my arms, valued at five 
hundred rupees, in his own presence and in that of the 
durbar ; this present was accompanied with two Cashmere 
shawls of the same value, and, whilst I sat on the floor, the 
minister laid them upon my shoulders, the maharajah telling 
me that my physic had produced in him the best effect. 
It was, of course, quite natural that this event should fill 
my heart with joy, as it inspired mc with the hope that the 
king would soon recover, and thus lay the first stone of 
my reputation and future fortune. This scene took place 
in the royal garden, Shahbelore, two miles from the city, 
where I had resided for three days. On the fourth day, 
early in the morning, the minister allowed me to visit my 
patients in the city ; but while there, I heard that several 
mounted messengers had been despatched from Shahbelore 
to request me to return to that place. I galloped back ; and 
on the road I overtook some hakims (Mohamedan physicians) 
and astrologers, travelling the same way, on elephants, on 
horseback, or carried in palanquins, from which I presumed 
that the maharajah had met with some accident, which made 
me very anxious. Arrived at Shahbelore, I was told that 
the maharajah had an attack of fever. On examining him, 
however, I could not find the least symptom of fever, it being 
in fact only excitement. The gudwai, who was in charge of 
the medicine, was of opinion that the fever proceeded fruoi 
too great a dose, which the maharajah had asked for on 
the previous evening, namely, two drops at once ; but I 
thought that could not be the cause of the alteration, one 
drop more or less not being able to produce such an effect. 
The physicians of the city were invited to a consultation. 
That was all they desired ; for they had be.en touched to the 
quick on hearing that the maharajah was recovering, and 
that he had made me presents of gold and robes of honour. 
They would have preferred seeing the king die, rather than 
acknowledge me, an Europeao, as bis saviour. That was 



98 TillRTV-FIVE VEARS IN THE EAST. 

the reason v/hy all my endeavours and all my demonstrations 
turned out fruitless. The prudeut minister was of opinion, 
that it did not lie in his poi^'er to decide ; the fakeer, Azeez- 
oo-Deen, exercising such magic influence on the maharajah, 
that only by addressing myself to him could I obtain any 
decision according to my desires. I reminded the fakeer 
of his own words, that such minute doses could not be 
hurtful, even if it should be poison. Besides, I observed, 
that it was not every fever, especially when appearing in so 
mild a form, that could be of bad consequence, as nature 
sometimes cures diseases by re-action in the frame ; and 
that, under such circumstances, it was advisable to lay 
aside all medicine, and await the result. But he objected 
to that, saying that the maharajah was too feeble to 
endure such a fever. '' But, " continued he, " let us hear 
what opinion the other physicians have." All my arguments 
availed nothing. The consultation, at which the fakeer 
presided, was composed of a dozen hakinis from Peshawur 
and Lahore, Hindoo physicians, astrologers, &c., each o,( 
whom imagined that he possessed the deepest knowledge 
of medical art. Most of them carried large books, to cover 
their want of real learning. In fine, they agreed unanimously 
to administer to the patient a majoon (electuary), of which 
jowahirad ( precious stones ) constituted the principal 
ingredient The fakeer himself prepared and administered 
it to the patient ; but in less th-m a fortnight the 
maharajah gave up his temporal life. He died ' at the 
fortress in my presence, upon which the minister ordered 
the gates to be shut, but I readily obtained his permission 
to absent myself. The fakeer, who exercised great in- 
fluence in the household of the royal court, and who 
had begun his career at Lahore as a barber, with a few 
boxes of ointment, did not live long after his patron, 
Runje-it Sing. Azeez-oo-Deen — of Arabian origin, and 
descended from the Ansari Arabs of the desert — was the 
oracle of Runjeet Sing. He, the prime-minister Dhyan 
Sing, and Dewan-Deena-Nauth, minister of finance, con- 
stituted the triad of which tlie privy-couacil ol the king 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 99 

was composed. The latter has been recently promoted to 
the rank of rajah by the English. 

The small doses of opium ( every afternoon one pill 
of 3 gr?. ) which Runjeet Sing took daily, and the strong 
spirits he used to drink at different hours of the day, 
transported him into a kind of excitement, which mani- 
fested itself in the highest degree in the evening, after 
the enjoyment of larger portions of spirits. Every one 
loved and feared him at the same time. He had an army 
of 100,000 men, inspiring awe and respect, half of whom were 
regular and the other half irregular troops, with whom he 
miiiht have enforced his laws on all the Hindoos ; never- 
thelesss, he entertained the greatest friendship with his 
neighbours the English, and manifested his favour towards 
the French, the Italians, and other European nations, by 
making them governors in his provinces. His disease was 
brought on by a severe cold, and by indulging somewhat 
too much in strong spirits. The latter I am told was 
especially the case during the winter in which the Governor- 
General of India, Lord Auckland, came to Lahore to pay 
him a visit. In the transport of his joy, he drank more than 
ordinarily. Probably, if an emetic had been given at the 
commencement of the disease, it would have produced a 
good effect ; but as the native physicians did not know of 
any good and effective emetic, and are fearful, also^ of the 
effects of vomiting, they prefer using purgatives, by which 
sometimes the disease grows worse, as the case above related 
sufficiently proves. 

It made a very deep impression on my feelings to have 
been prevented from making myself useful to the maharajah, 
and restoring to health the man on whose life was depending 
the happiness, peace and prosperity of that country. Every 
one whose forethought enabled him to throw a glance on the 
future, must have seen with pain and sorrow that a violent 
crisis menaced that country, by which a nation scarcely risen 
from barbarity might suik back into its former condition. 

The first sad and cruel scene that I witnessed after the 
death of Runjeet Sing, was the Suttee, or burning of his 

17 



100 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

eleven wives, along with the body of the deceased. There 
were four ranees ( legal wives ), and seven female slaves, who, 
animated with the superstitious hope of entering paradise with 
their lord and husband, were ascending the funeral pile with 
death-despising intrepidity ; they cowered round the corpse, 
and were covered with reed mats, on which oil was poured 
in profusion. This done, fire was set to the funeral pile, so 
that the poor creatures became suffocated by the smoke 
and flames before they could utter a cry. In order not to 
give the reader a false notion of the customs and manners 
of the Hindoos, it is necessary to observe, that no woman 
is compelled to be burnt with her husband ; they do it by 
their own free will, and it is a characteristic trait, that only 
those women devote themselves to that dismal ceremony 
whose fate had decreed them not to be mothers. Perhaps 
they follow their husbands to the other world, in the hope 
of obtaining there what was denied them in this sublunary 
one. But it is not the custom for men to be burnt, either 
with their wives or with other men ; nevertheless, the mini- 
ster. Rajah Dhyan Sing, insisted upon being burnt with his 
lord and his wives ; but the welfare of the country depend- 
ing at that time solely on him, he was prevented from 
undergoing this terrific ceremony. Runjeet Sing, a short 
time before his death, engaged this minister to assist his 
son, Kurrck Sing, whom he made heir to the throne, although 
he must have been persuaded of his incapacity ; and if 
Kurrck Sing had followed the prudent advice of his father, 
and had not yielded to the insinuations of his tutor, 
Sirdar Chet Sing, every thing would have proceeded in a 
prosperous manner. 

Before I proceed in my relation of the late eventful 
occurrences at Lahore, I must give some more details to 
such of my readers as may wish to know the particulars 
of that abominable ceremony of burning the living with the 
dead, which at present occurs but rarely in places under 
the English government, by whom it is strictly forbidden. 
I witnessed the above-mentioned self-sacrifice, of which the 
following are the details : — 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. lOI 

Early in the morning subsequent to that on which the 
death of the maharajah happened, 1 went down the Tukht 
( coronation-square ), accompanied by Col. Henry Steinbach 
( lately in the service of the maharajah, Gholab Sing, in 
Cashmere, now in Europe ), and we directed our steps to- 
wards the large yard, which we had to cross, in order to 
get betimes to a convenient place close to the funeral pile. 
This was erected between the walls and the fortress, in a 
small garden, the conflux of the people having been so 
enormous in the fortress. In the large yard, we observed 
one of the four ranees (queens) coming out of the harem 
on foot and unveiled, for the first time in her life. She was 
slowly proceeding towards the place where the royal body 
was lying, and she was surrounded by about one hundred 
persons, who kept themselves at some distance, while 
accompanying her. Close to her side there was a man 
carrying a small box, containing the remainder of her jewels 
( as she had already distributed some ), which she made 
presents of, handing them one by one to the people on her 
right and left. Two or three steps in front of her, there 
was a man moving in a backward direction, his face turned 
towards her, and holding a looking-glass, that she might 
convince herself that her features were unaltered, and no 
fear visible on them. At the distribution of the jewels, 
Col. Steinbach made the observation that, had we stretch- 
ed out our hands to receive a present, it certainly would 
not have been denied ; but we thought proper to leave it 
to the poorer people, because we occupied lucrative posts. 
It is curious, indeed, that this was the very ranee whom 
Runjeet Sing married in the first year of my residence in 
that country, ten years having passed since I witnessed 
the nuptials at Nadoun. She was, as I mentioned before, 
a daughter of Sunsarchund, and she had a younger sister, 
whom the maharajah at the same time took also for a wife, 
and conveyed them both to Lahore ; the latter, I am told, 
had died of consumption during my absence. As for the 
former, although I was present at her wedding, I never- 
theless had never seen her before, and it was only on her 



102 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

last fatal walk, which she took to her funeral pile, that I 
could behold her. The funeral train, accompanied by many 
thousands of spectators, was now proceeding; all were on foot, 
their abode in the fortress not being far distant from the 
place of the ceremony. The four ranees only were carried, 
in open palanquins, behind the deceased, after them followed 
the seven female slaves, barefooted ; some of them appeared 
to be not more than fourteen or fifteen years of age. The 
ranees, too, were barefooted, their silk dresses were simple, 
and without any ornaments, and they appeared to h>e 
indifferent to the awful though voluntary fate which awaited 
them. Perhaps our hearts throbbed more at the view 
of this dismal train than those of the poor victims them- 
selves. The body of Runjeet Sing was placed on a board, 
to which it was probably fastened, and was carried on a 
light and decorated bier constructed in the shape of a 
ship ; the sails and flags of the vessel were made of rich 
golden and silk stuff (^kimkab), and of Cashmere shawls. 
A number of people carried the bier from the interior 
of the fortress up to the funeral-pile, there the board 
with the body was taken out of it and deposited on the 
ground, where, on what was a small garden, now stands a 
summood, i. e., a tomb of the royal family Runjeet Sing, 
Kurruck Sing and No-Nehal Sing, L e., the father, son, and 
grand-child, together with their wives and slaves. The 
costly ornaments of the richly decorated bier were given 
to the mob ; the Brahmins performed their prayers from 
the Shaater, a book written in the Indian or Sanscrit 
language ; the Gooroos, or priests of the Sikhs, did the same, 
from their holy scripture called Grunthsaheb,* and the Mussel- 
men accompanied them with their "Ya, Allah ! Ya, Allah I" 
A slow, but not displeasing rumbling of the drums, and toe 
murmuring of the people, gave to the whole scene a 
melancholy aspect, and was peculiar to the country. The 
funeral pile which displayed itself before the eyes of the 
spectators, was constructed of dry woods, amongst which 

* Griinth is the holy book of Baba-Nanuk. 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. IO3 

there were pieces of aloe ; it was about six feet high and 
square. After the prayers of the Brahmins and Gooroos, 
which lasted nearly an hour, the minister and other sirdars 
ascended by a ladder the funeral-pile, upon which ignitible 
matters and substances, as cotton seeds, &c., were strewn, 
and fhe royal body was respectfully placed in the middle 
of the pile, together with the board. After this, the ranees 
ascended the fatal ladder, one by one, according to their rank, 
the slaves followed, and the minister showed himself very 
officious in affording them assistance. The ranees placed 
themselves at the head of the royal body, and the slaves 
close at its feet. There they cowered, remaining in silent 
expectation for the fatal moment, when a strong thick mat of 
reeds being brought, with which the whole were covered, oil 
was then poured over the mat, the minister and sirdars des- 
cended, and the pile was lighted at each corner. In a few 
moments, the deplorable victims of an abominable and fana- 
tic ceremony had ceased to exist. 

The consuming of this pile occupied two days ; on the 
third, some of the bones and ashes of each of the bodies were 
collected in the presence of the court only, and separately 
placed in urns. After which ceremony, a preparation was 
made for a journey, with exactly the same pomp and 
splendour as if the maharajah and his wives were still 
alive. Thus their remains were conveyed in five richly cap- 
arisoned palanquins by numerous attendants and guards, 
accompanied by handsome presents, such as shawls, costly 
decorated elephants, horses, &c., &c., to the banks of the 
Ganges, where the Brahmins received the whole. The bones 
and ashes they put into the river, the other valuables they 
distributed among themselves ; nothing returning but the 
men. The tents under which the ashes of Runjeet Sing and 
each of the ranees were placed, were composed of the most 
valuable Cashmere shawl materials, the props of which were 
of gold and silver. Some millions of rupees were expended 
in this outfit. Upon the procession leaving the fortress, 
it traversed the streets and bazaars, the ministers and 
some of the principal sirdars on foot, with numerous others 



104 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

mounted on their elephants and horses. Thousands of 
persons were assembled in the streets, bazaars, and on the 
tops of houses, by whom flowers were thrown upon the 
palanquins. The curtains of the palanquin which contained 
the remains of Runjeet Sing were open, while those of his 
wives were closed, in the same manner as when travelling 
during their lifetime. The minister walked close to the palan- 
quin of his royal master, being occupied in keeping the flies 
from its contents, thus showing his respect to the last. On 
the arrival of the procession outside of the Delhi gate, a final 
and profuse royal salute was given by the thundering of 
cannon from the fort and ramparts of the city, upon which 
the minister and sirdars returned, leaving the remains and 
presents to be conducted by the guard. The mourning lasted 
thirteen days, the colour of the costume being white. 

After the obsequies of Runjeet Sing, his legitimate son,. 
Kurruck Sing, ascended the Guddee ( throne ), who, besides 
being a blockhead, was a worse opium eater than his father. 
Twice a-day he deprived himself of his senses, and passed 
his whole time in a state of stupefaction. It was quite 
natural that the government could not long remain in the 
hands of such an individual. His guardian, or tutor and 
factotum, Sirdar Chet Sing, being desirous to become an 
independent minister, was a rival of Dhyao Sing, and was 
contriving to remove him. He intended to assassinate him 
one morning in the durbar. For this purpose he had collected 
in the fortress, where he lived with Kurruck Sing, his two 
recently organised batallions of body-guards,and had ordered 
the sentinels at the three gates, devoted to Dhyan Sing, to 
be changed early in the morning fixed upon for the murder 
of the minister ; but this plot was not concealed from 
Dhyan Sing, and he hastened to prevent the treacherous 
act, in which he succeeded by the assistance of the royal 
prince, No-Nehal Sing and a few of the sirdars ; and with 
the aid of his two brothers and some relations, Kurruck 
Sing and Chet Sing were assailed in the fortress before the 
break of day, when Chet Sing and all his relations and 
partisans were destroyed. This was the beginning of the 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 10$ 

bloody scenes in the Punjab, which could only end by the 
interference of the English. 

After the murder of Chet Sing, tiie royal prince, No- 
Nehal, Kurruck Sing's only son, took possession of the 
government, and ordered his father to retire to his private 
house in the city, where he soon became indisposed. A 
few months afterwards he followed his father, Runjeet Sing 
to the funeral pile. The rumour was current that he was 
poisoned, and the poison employed was also specified, but 
I do not believe it. Only it is a fact, that the son showed 
great indifference in regard to the treatment of his father, 
or for his recovery ; and, during his father's illness he never 
saw him but once or twice, and then but a short time before 
his death ; on which occasion the father was treated by 
Lis only son in a manner quite revolting, even to the 
natives around, which accounts for his having committed 
him into the hands of inexperienced physicians and faqueers. 
I, the only appointed European physician, was never called 
for during the king's disease, which lasted nine months. 
It is probable that the patient requested my assistance, but 
the son prevented my attending. Had he known that the 
death-day of his father would also be his own, he certainly 
would have behaved in another manner. 

On the same day in which the king, Kurruck Sing, and his 
only son died, a curious event happened. Early in the 
morning, I was called by Meean Oottum Sing, eldest son 
of the Maharajah Gholab Sing, and he committed the Chief 
of his mountain troops to my treatment, he being every il), 
promising me a pair of Cashmere shawls in case I should be 
able, as I expected, to relieve him hy the evening. My new 
patient was unable to void his urine, and was troubled with 
gravel in the kidneys. He recovered the same day, whilst 
Oottum Sing himself, as we shall see, met with his death. 
When I hastened into the house of the patient, summoned 
as I was by Oottum Sing, with whom he lived, I found both 
in a small room, and, according to the custom of the 
Hindoos, the patient was lying on the floor, whilst Oottum 
Sing was sitting on the bed, offering me to sit near him. 



106 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

We were speaking about the disease of the patient, when 
suddenly a messenger entered, with the news that the 
Maharajah Kurruck Sing had expired a few minutes pre- 
viously. The ceremony of the funeral-pile took place the 
same afternoon. Three of his wives were burnt with him ; 
and I was present at that horrid, yet remarkable spectacle. 
The ceremony took place close to the same spot where 
Runjeet Sing was burnt, and nearly with the same rites. 
The court afterwards went on foot to the river, to perform 
their ablutions, according to the custom of the country, 
whilst I returned to my above-mentioned patient. Scarcely 
had I arrived, when I was told that I had been called for, 
and invited by the minister to attend immediately at the 
fortress garden ( hazooree-bagh ), I did not lose one 
moment, but repaired to that place, and found the minister 
waiting for me, who, as soon as he descried me, came, and 
seizing my hand, told me it was all over with Meean 
Oottum Sing. My surprise was increased, upon hearing 
that a piece of the wall falling upon him and the royal 
prince, No-Nehal, had crushed them beneath its frag- 
ments. Oottum Sing was killed instantly, and the royal 
prince considerably hurt. The minister conducted me to a 
tent, where I saw the prince; but he (the minister) en-- 
joined me, in the most energetic manner, not to speak about 
that event to any one. The prince was on his bed, his 
head most awfully crushed, and his state was such that no 
hope of his recovery existed. With that conviction I left 
the tent, and whispered to the minister, in so low a tone 
that no one else could hear it, " IMedical art can do nothing 
to relieve the unfortunate prince ;" upon which, the minister 
requested me to wait there while he re-entered the tent, 
and, after a short stay therein, he came out, addressing 
me loud enough to be heard by all the assembly, who listen- 
ed attentively, asking " whether they might give some 
soup to the Koonwar Saheb ( royal prince ), he wishing to 
have some." Whereupon 1 answered, " Of course ; he is in 
need only of parsley ;" — a proverb applied to those danger- 
ously ill, and not expected to live. The minister's intention 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. I07 

in questioninf[ me thus, was to conceal at that moment 
the approachinor death of the prince, in order to have time 
to make the necessary preparations, so that the peace and 
tranquillity of the country mijjht not be disturbed, ia 
which he succeeded so that the death of the prince re- 
mained a seeret for three days. This interval he took 
advantage of to recall Sheer Sing, Runjeet Sing's adopt- 
ed son, and to place him upon the throne. In the 
meanwhile, the partisans of the deceased prince invited the 
ranee, his mother, Chund Kour, to come as soon as possible. 
Both arrived on the third day, only that Sheer Sing was 
rather later than the ranee, who had taken her position 
in the interior part of the fortress : and he was therefore 
obliged to camp in the garden ( hazooree-bagh ) outside the 
fortress. When both were at their respective posts, the 
death of the royal prince was made public, and the burn- 
ing ceremony was ordered, which took place close to that 
of his grandfather. Two beautiful young ladies became 
victims of the flames with him. One female of the age of 
twelve years Sheer Sing detained, owing to her not being 
yet ripe for the ceremony of the suttee. 

It would have been proper at that time to have made 
inquiries whether the falling of the wall by which No- 
Nehal Sing and Oottum Sing had been crushed, was 
accidental, or a premeditated machination of wicked con- 
spirators ; but none thought it worth their while to make 
the inquiry, and the event was regarded as a punishment 
of God — the royal prince having neglected his royal father, 
and if he had not caused his death, had at least accelerated 
it by his negligence. 

The absence of investigation induced the English to 
believe the death of No-Nehal Sing to have been a 
premeditated plot of Dhyan Sing, who, according to their 
opinion, ambitious as he was, saw in the prince the only 
impediment and obstacle to the sinister purposes which 
he had in view. As for me, having lived for a long time 
in that country, an ocular witness of the events, and hav- 
ing had the opportunity of closely observing the conduct 



I08 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

ard motives of the minister, I cannot agree with this 
assertion. Firstly, he would certainly have spared the life 
of his nephew Oottum Sing, whom he loved, and would have 
appointed another companion to the prince, and also have 
kept himself somewhat farther from the place at which 
the accident happened. He could not foresee the moment 
of the downfall of the wall, nor calculate the distance where 
he might escape the ruin : as a proof of which, his arm was 
severely contused and injured, for which I myself attended 
him. Secondly, he would certainly have arranged that 
Sheer Sing should be at hand, in order to raiss him 
immediately to the throne, by which he would have^prevent- 
ed the consultations which daily took place in the fortress 
for foureen days, nntil at last it was decided that the Ranee 
Chund Kour, mother of No-Nehal Sing, and heiress, 
should occupy the throne, which she did not know how to 
maintain. There is more reason to suppose that the 
partisans of Kurruck Sing and Chet Sing were the authors 
of this plot against the prince, as he had intended to 
ask them for an account of their perfidious behaviour 
during his father's long illness, they having cheated and 
robbed him in the most shameful manner, and it was 
generally known that immediately after the faneral rites 
of his father, he ( the prince ) intended to order seven of 
their houses to be closed, and inquiries to be made. 

During the conferences of the sirdars in the fortress, 
which lasted for a fortnight, the Ranee Chund Kour attempt- 
ed the life of Sheer Sing ; but Dhyan Sing was soon informed 
of it, and warned hXs potUge. Sheer Sing did not forget it, and 
when he afterwards took the reins of government into his 
hands, it happened that during his absence from Lahore, 
the slave-girls of Chund Kour crushed the head of their 
mistress with a brick, whilst she was enjoying her siesta. 
Dhyan Sing proceeded, in the absence of the king, against 
the assassins, and caused tiieir noses, ears and hands to 
be cut off, which was effected publicly, before the kotoali 
(police-office), and expelled them from the city ; but as 
their tongues had remained unhurt, they alleged that they 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. IO9 

only fulfilled the wish of Sheer Sin?, who promised them 
asa reward a jaghir (some land). On that account, they 
were transported tq. the opposite side of the river Ravee, 
and were never afterwards heard of. 

The Sikh troops had been often reviewed before their 
monarch or the royal prince, and on such occasions some 
were promoted or rewarded. This was abolished under 
the government of Chund Kour. She was only visible to 
some of her confidants. Her ministers and counsellors di- 
rected the helm of the state vessel, which moved on 
indifferently, as ench one neglected the public welfare, and 
provided only for his private interest. In the course of time 
there naturally arose a general dissatisfaction. The minister, 
Dhyan Sing, perceiving the consequences of it, pretended 
to go with his younger brother Soochet Sing into the 
mountains of his native country, on a hunting party, to 
restore his health ; but, in fact, it was only a pretext for 
calling in Sheer Sing, to whooa all the troops flocked to 
range themselves under his standard. 

The following event may serve as a sample of oriental 
policy, Dhyan Sing's eldest son, Haera Sing, and his own 
elder brother, Gholab Sing, belonged to the faction of the 
ranee. They shut themselves up with her in the fortress, 
which was bombarded incessantly for three days and nights. 
It was only when the besiegers prepared to take the place 
by storm, that the besieged surrendered, under the following 
stipulations : the ranee shall henceforth live in the fortress, 
a convenient jaghir shall be granted to her ; and to the 
garrison, consisting of two batallions of dogras ( mountain- 
eers ), the troops of Gholab Sing, a free retreat shall be 
granted. Their retreat was fixed to take place in the dark- 
ness of the night, and they were permitted to take with 
them whatever they pleased. Gholab Sing was during five 
days in possession of the fortress where the treasury 
happened to be. The troops of the mountains were ordered 
to go the opposite side of the river Ravee, until the corona- 
tion of Sheer Sing should have taken place. Hy Dhyan Sing 
and Soochet Sing's mediation, Gholab Sing and Heera Sing 



no THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST 

were reconciled with Sheer Sing, living with him on the best 
terras,and enjoying as before the greatest influence at the 
court. Had the party in the fortress gained the day, the issue 
of that civil contention would also have finished in favour of 
the Rajah's family. After the settlement of this affair, two 
of the rajahs retired into the mountains with their troops, 
laden with their stolen treasures, the two others remained 
with Sheer Sing. 

The new maharajah addicted himself to immoderate 
drinking, and indulged especially in champagne. The good, 
feeling between him and Dhyan Sing soon reached its end, 
and they began to hate each other in the most acrimonious 
manner. Sirdar Ajeet Sing and his uncle Lena Sing 
(descended from the family of the Scindawalla, and related 
to Runjeet Sing ) belonged to the party of the ranee, who 
had fought against Sheer Sing and Dhyan Sing ; but they 
knew how to insinuate themselves into the confidence of 
both to such a degree that, without the knowledge of either, 
they destroyed both the maharajah and his wuzeer. They 
conspired with Sheer Sing to murder Dhyan Sing, but at 
the same time they also intrigued with Dhyan Sing to 
murder ?Sheer Sing. Both king and minister were well 
acquainted with their preparations for war, and knew also 
that the Scindawallas had provided themselves wirh 
gunpowder, bullets and soldiers. Sheer Sing was even 
repeatedly cautioned by his friends to be on his guard, 
to which advice however he paid no attention, and in an 
immovable manner allowed them to concoct their schemes. 
Each one believed that the stroke was appointed for his 
adversary, and, finally, it fell upon both. True is the 
proverb : "He who digs a pit for another, falls in himself;" 
for Ajeet Sing as well as Lena Sing had laboured for their 
own ruin. 

Sheer Sing used to review his troops every day. On such 
an occasion, being in the royal garden (Shahbelore) for 
the purpose of mustering the Scindawalla's troops, and 
sitting before the window of a small room, to look at the 
soldiers, Ajeet Sing approached him and exhibited a 



PAgt III 



11 





RANEE CHUNDA 



MAHARAJH DULLEEP SING 




SIRDAR JEWAMIR SING 



RAJAH LALL SING 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. HI 

loaded double-barrelled fowling piece, as a nazerana (present), 
and at the moment Sheer Sing was stretching out his hand 
to receive it, he was shot with that gun on the spot. 
Ajeet Sing's troops, arrayed before the window, gave a 
volley of musket shots through the window, to kill the 
men surrounding Sheer Sing, and penetrated into the 
room to cut off his head. I was by accident not farther 
than ten steps from the place where the horrid crime was 
committed, and five minutes before his atrocious murder 
I had spoken to him in the garden under a tree, where he 
ordered me to remain until his return. The subject of 
our interview was a gunpowder-mill with machinery, which 
Dhyan Sing had ordered me to make. Sheer Sing had 
inspected that establishment four days previously ( on a 
Sunday ), and was so satisfied, that with his own hands 
he put on my arms two pair of gold bracelets, and ordered 
500 rupees to be given to me, as an additional sum to the 
900 which I already received as my monthly appointment. 
This having been only an oral promise, I went daily to the 
durbar, in order to receive an authority in writing, and was 
with him on the fatal Thursday on which he was assassinat- 
ed. Whilst this crime was being perpetrated by Ajeet 
Sing, Lena Sing, his uncle, murdered, in a garden in the 
neighbourhood, the royal prince, Pertaub Sing, a boy only 
twelve years of age. This innocent victim of party fury 
was cruelly cut into pieces with sabres, at the moment 
when he was occupied with his Brahmins in prayers and 
giving alms to the poor ; for it was a Sancrat day, the first 
day of a Hindoo month, on which similar ceremonies 
generally took place. The guardian of the infant child, 
Baii Goormuck Sing, Misser Belee Ram ( the first treasurer ), 
and other accomplices, did not wait long before they received 
retribution. From Shahbelore, the murderers hurried towards 
the fortress. On their way they met Dhyan Sing, who was 
on his road to Shahbelore, and they informed him of what 
had been done, and took him back to the fortress to exe- 
cute their project of placing Runjeet Sing's youngest son, 
Dulleep Sing, on the throne. When they arrived in the 



112 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

fortress, they shot Dhyan Sing, cut his body into pieces, shut 
theniselves up in the fortress, and proclaimed, by drum- 
beating, DuUeep Sinsf as king, and Ajeet Sing his wuzeer. 
Rajah Heera Sing, Dhyan Sing's son, who was at liberty, 
having escaped being murdered, knew how to gain the 
favour of the troops by his eloquence and promises, and 
they declared themselves ready to follow him. Confident 
with this armed force, he entered the city at midnight, 
surrounded the fortress, and blockaded it. The thundering 
of the cannon lasted twelve hours, till mid-day, at which 
time the small garrison was almost exhausted. At that 
moment, Heera Sing gave the signal for storming. A 
Spanish colouel, named M. Harbon, in the service of the 
Sikhs, was one of the first on the battlements of the dis- 
mantled walls. Those who laid down their arms re- 
mained unhurt, only the ringleaders, Ajeet Sing, Lena 
Sing, Baii Goormuck Sing, Misser Belee Ram, and a few 
others, were destroyed in the melee, Ajeet Sing's head was 
delivered to Heera Sing, as a trophy, but his body, and that 
of his uncle, Lena Sing, were hung up on the outside 
of the city gates. Who would have imagined that the 
victorious Heera Sing should so soon have met with a simi- 
lar fate ! 

With the body of Dhyan Sing, thirteen wives and female 
slaves were burnt. Heera Sing, his son, had been educated 
by Runjeet Sing, was endowed with wit and genius, and had 
received a good education, being able to read and write 
well ; and knowing also how to treat the troops ; which 
latter accomplishment he learned from his father. The 
young king ( eight years old ) had therefore a young minister 
( twenty-five years of age ), who might have occupied his 
post for a long time, had he not been too much under the 
control of his guardian, whom he regarded as a deity. This 
guardian was a fanatic Brahmin, from the mountains, of 
the name ofjellah Pundit, who frequently induced Heera 
Sing to take false measures, by influencing his mind with 
astrological dreams and false prophecies, to the injury of 
the country. la fact, he only did that which pleased hinj. 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. II3 

and ordered only what agreed with his extravagant ideas ; 
this caused considerable confusion, and in consequence 
there was general dissatisfaction ; so it was thought prudent 
to remove Jellah Pundit. The troops themselves, with the 
king's uncle at their head, insisted on his being delivered 
over to them, to which Heera Sing manifested no in- 
clination ; this caused the flight of the latter, with his 
guardian, which they performed on elephants, laden with 
their riches. But scarcely had they gone a few miles from 
the capital, and crossed the river Ravee, on their way to 
the mountains, when they were overtaken by their per- 
secutors, whilst stopping at a village for a few minutes' 
repose. They were overwhelmed, in spite of the brave 
resistance of Heera Sing's retinue ; the village became 
a prey to the flames ; and he and his escort were killed to 
the last man. Among those who perished in that affair 
was Meean Son Sing ( a son of the maharajah Gholab 
Sing ), whose head, together with those of Heera Sing, 
Jellah Pundit, kc, &c., was brought as a trophy to the 
capital. 

It cannot escape the attention of an observer who has 
followed the course of the political changes at that period, that 
in this party contention a great deal of bloodshed and mis- 
chief might have been averted from the country, if the 
Sikhs had been endowed with more penetration, and if, 
instead of defending the cause of Heera Sing's party, they 
had ranged themselves under the banner of Ajeet Sing, 
and supported his interest. If they had arrested Heera Sing, 
as the circumstances then imperatively required, they would 
not only have prevented every future struggle, but brought 
also into their possession all the immense treasures which 
were at Heera Sing's disposal. But the proverb says, 
•' Quem Daus vult perdere, prius dementat." 

I intend to give to my readers a true picture of v/hat 
happened to me at the assassination of Sheer Sing, being 
an involuntary spectator at this ferocious scene • and how 
I escaoed the perils which threatened my own person. At 
the tnomeat I heard tne firiug of the guns, aad perceived 



114 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

all the people ia motion, taking their weapons, I felt 
persuaded that the locality was not an asylum for a 
tranquil man ; so I looked for a passage to make my 
escape from the garden — the scene of horror — and betake 
myself to the spot where I had left my horse and servants. 
These were still waiting, at a place which was separated 
from me by a small low garden wall, and a narrow ditch. 
I hastened towards them, jumped over the wall and ditch, 
and arrived safely at the spot. It was by a fortunate 
chance that I took this direction for my escape ; my 
people telling me afterwards, that at the great entrance 
to the garden the bullets hissed and flew about, and that 
they were in great anxiety for my life. Thus I was 
saved in a critical moment, by taking a firm resolution, 
without any hesitation. 

Having said thus much about my own preservation, I 
will now proceed with my narrative. 

At the time of Sheer Sing's reign, we mustered about 
twenty Europeans, for the most part French and English 
officers, in the service of the Lahore government. It was the 
common saying, that we should bye and bye form a colony ; 
but Jellah Pundit dismissed them from the service, one 
after the other, alleging economical motives, but, in fact, 
from religious fanaticism ; so that I and the Spaniard only 
remained. But at last I too was dismissed. Nevertheless, 
I remained in the city ; and cautiously made preparations 
for my departure, and for that purpose had sold all my 
effects at a very low price. I did this partly by the advice 
of my friends, partly by my own inclination, persuaded as 
I was that such misgovernment could not be of long dura- 
tion, and anticipating what the future must bring forth. 
I did not doubt for one moment that they would bring 
the heads of the minister and his bad adviser as trophies 
to Lahore ; and my supposition was realised by the result. 
The fanatics, the Akalees ( immortals ), or rather the 
robber-pack, the Nahungs, exhibited for money the head 
ofjellahjat Lahore and Umritsir : "That is the rogue," 
they exclaimed, "who iuduced the young Heera Sing to 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, I15 

murder his uncle, the brave Rajah Soochet Sing, for which 
he wanted an army of 20,000 men, although his antagonist 
was only assisted by forty valiant mountaineers." This 
murder happened in a small mosque, five miles from 
Lahore. Jellah, the idol of Heera Sing, intrigued as a 
decided fanatic against the high priest of the Sikhs, 
Gooroo Baba Beer Sing. Under the pretext that this holy 
man was on good terms with the rebels and fugitives, and 
collected them in his camp, in order to surrender the coun- 
try to the English, he spurred the minister on to send a 
part of his troops to the residence of the priest, and to take 
the fugitives prisoners. At this expedition, accompanied 
by great bustle, the Gooroo was shot, together with a great 
number of horned cattle ( holy beast, sacred among the 
Hindoos ind Sikhs ), and numerous poor people supported 
by the charity of the priest ; part of them were driven 
into the river Sutlej, near to Hurekee-ke-Puttun ( a ferry on 
the Sutlej ), where they perished. Among the slain there 
was also Cashmere Sing, son to Runjeet Sing, who had 
been driven from the fortress of Seealkote, which was given 
to him and his brother, Peshora Sing, as an appanage from 
their father. 

Jellah impaired the civil list of the king, Dulleep Sing, 
and his mother, ranee Chund, and that of his uncle Jewahir 
Sing, to such an extent that they could not live in a style 
due to their rank. This prompted the brother of the ranee, 
Jewahir Sing, to allure Dulleep Sing out of the fortress on 
an elephant, and to take refuge with the troops of ""General 
Avitabile, but the kidnapper was received by the general 
in command, Misser Jodaram, a Brahmin, and father-in-law 
to Jellah, with, instead of friendly salutation, a stroke ia 
the face, and he imprisoned them both, for which he lost his 
nose when sirdar Jewahir Sing became wuzeer. In the city 
the rumour was current that Jewahir Sing intended to 
convey Dulleep Sing to Ferozepore, to deliver him to 
the English. Early in the morning Heera Sing went out 
on horseback, and brought both the fugitives back to the 
city. According to custom, a salute of hundreds of cannons 
19 



Il6 THIRTY-FIVE YAERS IN TIIE EAST. 

were fired on the entrance of Dulleep Sing, who was given 
up again to his mother in the fortress. Jewahir Sing was 
dragged to prison. At that time Jellah Pundit entered 
into a tender connection with a widow of Sheer Sing, and 
promised her that he would murder Dulleep Sing, and place 
her son, as legitimate heir of the Guddee, on the throne. 
The affair could not be performed secretly, and it reach- 
ed the ears of impartial persons, so the ranee Chund 
became informed of this conspiracy, and that was quite 
sufificient to suffocate it at its birth. Women's cunning 
surpasses all skill, especially if the question conerns their 
own interest. First of all, she contrived to secure the good 
will of the treasurer, Lall Sing. Who would have thought 
that a man, who owed his splendid position to Rajah 
Dhyan Sing, and who lived always in the society of Heera 
Sing, with whom he contracted brothership, and with whom 
Jellah Pundit exchanged turbans as a token of true amity, 
would have played the felon against these friends, in 
supporting the ranee with his advice and activity ? First of 
all he occasioned the release of her brother, Jewahir Sing, 
and gave him the required sums, with which he allured the 
Nahungs, in order to bring him out of the city. He succeed- 
ed immediately in attaching the discontented regular troops 
to his party ; and at the head of his partisans, he appeared 
the next morning, on the place used for millitary displays 
before the fortress, asking from Heera Sing the delivery 
of Jellah Pundit ; Heera Sing obstinately refusing the 
request, and feeling himself at the same time too feeble 
to oppose openly the mutineers, resolved to fly, as before 
mentioned, with Meean Son Sing, Jellah Pundit and his 
partisans the mountaineers, &c., directing their steps to- 
wards the river Ravee. Thus the whole body of the 
Sikhs became alienated from his interest, and his most 
intimate friends, pursued him with the army, and when he 
was overtaken, they killed all who could not escape. Lall 
Sing and Jewahir Sing re-entered the fortress victoriously 
about noon, with their trophies, consisting of five heads, 
whilst the robber-pack, as rear-guard, eager for booty, 



X^CkLl\^A ■K^t *. 



my house some English spies, who were in cuniLuuii.< 

with Jewahir Sing, to surrender the country to the English. 
Colonel Mouton was the only one who lived in my house, 



/ Page ii-j 

rrSn 



Xll 



j^y. 



vi>A:cj^ 











I 







THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. If/ 

divided amongst themselves the riches, which the fugitives 
had taken with them. Every one hastened to present his 
nazerana ( present ), and to express his congratulation, and 
I did the same ; on which occasion the new wuzeer, Jewahir 
Sing, who replaced Heera Sing, recieved me, not only with 
a friendly smile, but I obtained again on the same day my 
former position as physican, and director of the powder- 
mill, &c. 

Jewahir Sing, like his predecessors, did not long enjoy 
the possession of his dignity. He and the celebrated slave- 
girl, Mungela, formed one party of the opposition, whilst 
Lall Sing, and the ranee Chund, were the other antago- 
nists of the government. On both parties depended the 
administration of the government, while, on account of the 
contrast in their views, they could not act in harmony. A 
pseudo son of Runjeet Sing, named Peshora Sing, brother 
to Cashmere Sing ( who was killed with the high-priest ), 
intended to excite a rebellion against the subsisting govern- 
ment, and took the fortress of Attock. Jewahir Sing, 
flattering him with promises, allured him out of the fortress, 
and gave orders that he should be secretly murdered. But 
the troops, among whom the victim had a great number 
of partisans and friends, got information of the treacherous 
assassination, and in revenge killed Jewahir Sing when 
riding on his elephant. Jewahir was aware what the troops 
meditated doing with him and endeavoured to avoid their 
invitation to enter their camp. 

In the latter period of Jswahir Sing's administration, we 
lived under very critical circumstances ; neither justice, 
order nor security of life were enjoyed by the community. 
The soldiers, having lost all discipline, acted as each 
thought proper ; for instance, if a soldier went into a 
bazaar to receive an old debt, he took it by force with ten- 
fold interest. At the camp of Meean Meer, five miles from 
Lahore, there was a false report that I had concealed in 
my house some English spies, who were in communication 
with Jewahir Sing, to surrender the country to the English. 
Colonel MoutoQ was the only one who lived in my house, 



/ 



ll8 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

and who, a short time previously, had returned from France, 
in order to solicit a new engagement ; and now and then 
the Spaniard, Hurbon, and St. Amand, a painter, called on 
me, these being the only Europeans at Lahore. On one 
occasion, some soldiers whom I attended, told me con- 
fidentially that the troops had resolved, if Jewahir should 
not come from the fortress into their camp on that after- 
noon, to assail the fortress and kill him there. Their in- 
tention, they added, was also hostile towards my dwelling, 
which they intended to plunder and burn, as they thought 
I was concealing English spies who were conspiring with 
Jewahir Sing to surrender the country to the English ; they 
advised me therefore, to carry anything of value to a secure 
place. It was indeed, not before the last moment, when 
Jewahir heard, by the beating of the drums, that the 
troops were in full march to assail the fortress, that he 
resolved to leave his residence ; which turned out happily 
for the city and myself, for had he not done so, Lahore 
would have been plundered and sacked. In leaving the 
fortress he was riding on an elephant, holding little 
Dulleep Sing before him on his lap. In his Howda 
( chair), the^e was a number of bags filled with gold and 
silver. He thought probably to ransom his life with it, but 
he was mistaken. The Ranee and Mungela, with many 
slave-girls, followed him on several elephants. When the 
train arrived at the camp, the soldiers first took Dulleep 
Sing from his lap, and sent him with his mother in a royal 
tent, erected on purpose for the, court. Scarcely was that 
done, when they fired at Jewahir Sing, without any further 
ceremony, and the same fate awaited two of his attendants, 
named Baba-Ruttun-Sing and Chetta Payah. This cat- 
astrophe made such a deep impression on the Ranee and 
Mungela, that for many weeks they were quite inconsolable ; 
they appeared before the public for several days with their 
hair loose, as if mad. Every morning they went from the 
fortress on foot, crossing the pret ( place for exercising 
soldiers ) in the garden where Jewahir Sing had been burnt 
with both his companions and five living women ; there 



Ill 




RAJAH DHYAN SING 




KAjAii ilEERA SING 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 119 

they gave free vent to their tears, to relieve their oppressed 
hearts. 

In the year 1845 the cholera arrived at Lahore, having" 
travelled through Turkistan and Cabul. At the same time 
Gholab Sing was brought from Jummoo, a town in the 
mountains, a prisoner to Lahore, and he might have con- 
gratulated himself on having escaped the persecution of 
Jewahir Sing ; for it was well known that at different 
periods attempts had been made upon his life. The reason 
ofjevvahir's hatred against him was that Gholab Sing had 
persuaded a great number of the Sikh troops to follow his 
banner, to whom he trusted himself. He was brought from 
Jummoo to Lahore, in consequence of his resistance to 
some government exactions. It is a remarkabie fact, that 
Gholab Sing, in spite of his fortress being blockaded by 
numerous troops, was bold enough to give an order to 
murder on the road the delegates of the Sikhs whom he 
himself had despatched with the subsidies requested by the 
government, as if he had regretted performing his duty. 

During his struggles in the mountains, Runjoor Sing, v/ell 
known to the English as the commander of the Sikh troops 
at the battle of Aliwal, had the command in the mountains 
of Jesrota. One of the most wealthy Brahmins of that 
country had been requested by some of his neighbours to 
take their moveable goods into his custody, for which 
purpose the Brahmin solicited of Runjoor Sing a guard, 
which he obtained. But when Runjoor Sing was apprised 
that valuables were stored in the house of the Brahmin, 
he plotted an intrigue for obtaining possession of them, and 
despatched a division of his men, disguised as robbers, to 
plunder the house. The Brahmins being convinced that 
this violence had been perpetrated under the protection of 
Runjoor Sing, flocked in numbers to Lahore, to make 
their complaints to Jewahir Sing ; but seeing they could 
not receive any satisfaction from him, they all returned to 
their homes. The Brahmin at whose house the robbery was 
committed, was the only person who remained behind at 
Lahore, firmly determined not to leave the capital until 



I20 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

he obtained satisfaction. After a long and vain expecta- 
tion, he early one morning ascended a fig-tree, declaring 
that he would not leave that tree before be got reparation 
for the injustice which had been done him. When Jewahir 
Sing was informed of the fact, he despatched a soldier to 
compel the Brahmin to descend. The Brahmin, rather 
than comply, stabbed himself in the tree ; upon which, 
Jewahir commanded the faqueer Noor-oo-Deen to order 
the jerahs ( native surgeons ) to cure the wound. On the 
same day I was by accident coming from the durbar, 
which that day was held in the fortress, and met the 
faqueer, when we went together in the Goolab Khana, at 
the Hazooree Bagh, where the faqueer had his business- 
during the day. There we found one of the jerahs, who 
reported that the cure of the Brahmin was impossible, the 
bowels having protruded from his body, and could not be 
replaced. While I was inquiring what was the subject of 
their conversation, the faqueer related to me the particulars, 
and requested me to accompany the native surgeon to see 
the patient for a moment, adding, that he wished me to 
do my best to restore him to health. I went there, and 
found him in a small garden before the city gate ( Tunksallee 
Derwazeh.) The other jerahs had already given him up as 
a lost man, and retired. On his abdomen I saw the protrud- 
ing intestines, which, although unhurt, were of a bluish 
colour, by having been six hours exposed to the heat of the 
summer in that position. The patient, a lean man of about 
fifty years, was in the full possession of his senses. I sent for 
my instruments, and enlarged the narrow opening of the 
muscle and the peritoneum, so that I could replace the 
bowels, made a gastroraphy, and joined the wound. All 
this was done in a few minutes. During the operation, the 
patient said slowly " tenn, tenn, tenn," ( saint, saint, saint ), 
The assisting jerah gave me the title of ustad ( master ). 
After this, the patient was troubled by an annoying hic- 
cup, which lasted for three days, and then he recovered. I 
presented him to the faqueer Noor-oo-Deen, and the mini- 
ster. The latter did his best to appease him, and ordered 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. I2t 

some cows, utensils, clothes, and money to be delivered to 
him, and he retired satisfied. From this fact, every one 
will be convinced of the incapacity of the native surgeons, 
or jerahs, in the East, 

After the death of Jewahir Sing, the ranee conferred on 
her lover, Lall Sing, the title of prime minister. She had 
been several times endente^ but had always procured abor- 
tion. The fact was a public secret. It is easy to imagine 
that neither civil nor military men respected or feared the 
ranee and her favourite. This was especially the case 
among the army, whose discipline was in the highest degfee 
corrupted. Every batallion had two men called punches, 
or deputies, who dictated laws to the court, according to the 
resolutions taken by the assembly of the toops. This con- 
tinued until the ranee and her lover became objects of con- 
tempt and disrespect, and were often abused publicly, and 
threatened by the troops. There was no doubt anyi longer 
that their days were numbered, and at that time they thought 
it necessary to put themselves under the protection of the 
English. How was that to be effected ? It could only be 
done by making war against the English, by which, although 
her toops might be destroyed, and their opponents take pos- 
session of the country, they would be personally benefited. 
Another reason which may have induced the ranee to place 
herself under the protection of the English government, was 
possibly lest her fate might resemble that of her predecessors, 
should her adult son learn in what manner his father, and 
also his grandfather, had destroyed their own mothers ( vide 
Major G. C. Smyth's " History of the Reigning Family of 
Lahore" ). Thus she was between two fires, and thought her 
only safety was in English protection. The difficulty was, 
how to carry out their plot ; but they very soon found the 
means. At that time Teja Sing was governor of Peshawur, 
having succeeded General Avitabile, and was the only man 
who exercised a great influence over the troops since the time 
of Runjeet Sing. The ranee called on him for his advice. 
On his proposal, false documents were drawn up, which were 
read in the durbar, the contents of which were, that the 



/ 



122 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

English had confiscated the incomes of the lands of the 
Sikhs on the other side of the river Sutlej, and had 
committed numerous outrages, and that they were prepar- 
ing for war against the Sikhs ; therefore it was said to be 
necessary to have revenge, and attack them. 

Lall S:ng was proclaimed wuzeer, and Teja Sing Com- 
mander-in-chief of the troops. The Sikhs received their 
guree pershaut ( consecrated bread ) on the Summood ( tomb 
of the royal family ), where they administered an oath to 
each individually ; the Mahomedans on the Koran, and 
the Hindoos on the water of the Ganges. 

The astrologers having named an auspicious day, they 
went, without any further diplomatic conferences, on their 
march. The English, although well acquainted with all 
those disturbances aud confusions which happened in the 
neighbouring country, yet had not the least idea of being 
attacked by their allies, and were consequently not at all 
prepared for a war. On the other side of the river Sutlej, 
the four battles were fought — at Moodkee, Ferozeshahur, 
Aliwal, and Sobraon ; and the English, completely triumph- 
ing in the last battle, became masters of the country. 
Teja Sing, whom I attended at Lahore, made to me the 
candid confession, that, in circumstances like those to which 
the country was reduced, no other remedy was left for 
its salvation but to surrender it to the English. It is well 
known, that on the 22nd of December, 1845, Teja Siog 
arrived on the field of battle with a reserve of twenty- 
five to thirty thousand regular troops, after the English 
had fought a whole day and night, and consumed all 
their ammunition, on account of which they had been 
obliged to retreat. tJut the Sikhs with whom they had 
fought, believing themselves defeated, retired also, and the 
English returned and re-occupied their abandoned camp. 
That was the critical moment in which the reserve army, 
under the command of Teja Sing, arrived ; and he, being 
in correspondence with the English, did what he could to 
check the ardour of his troops by filling them with fear ; 
and he was the first who turmd his back in order to 



Page 12'^ 



IV 




* / M,A 




RAJAH TEJA SING 



RAJAH DEENA-NAUTH 





SIRDAR DOST MAHOMED 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 123 

Spare the English, he knowing their critical position. The 
army followed his example, and retreated also. That was 
the famous battle in which the confusion among the 
British troops reached its highest pitch — to such a degree, 
that they fired on each other. On this occasion, a 
Catholic priest, the only one in the whole array, lost his 
life, his long beard and turban causing the mistake. It is 
known, too, that the Prince Waldemar of Prussia was in 
the English ranks as a volunteer, and distinguished him- 
self by his courage and calmness. Although he luckily 
escaped the peril, he was much afflicted by the sad 
accident of seeing his dear friend and travelling com- 
panion. Doctor Hofraeister, fall by his side, having beea 
killed by a shot from the Sikh camp. 

On the loth of February, 1846, the battle of Sobraon 
took place, which decided the fate of the country. Teja 
Sing, the traitor, took to his heels, and, on passing the 
Sutlej, he ordered the bridge to be broken down, leaving 
the greater part of his troops behind in a helpless state. 
The betrayed soldiers cried, with their hands folded and 
grass in their mouths, making themselves emblems of 
their holy animals, the cattle. It is said, that some of 
them exclaimed : " We suffer only the just reward 
for our sins ; we did not deserve any better fate, for there, 
beyond the river, is the land where we killed our gooroo 
with his cows." Major G. C. Smyth, in his history, says 
very truly concerning the attack on the gooroo : — "One of 
the first victims was the holy Bai, one of whose legs was 
nearly knocked off by a cannon ball. Utter Sing and 
Cashmere Sing, with some other sirdars, fell in the conflict 
which ensued ; and numbers of their people were drowned 
in the river in attempicg to escape. The Sikhs lost ali their 
reverence for their gooroo, the sight of the rich plunder 
which his camp afforded being a temptation too strong for 
their piety. Their only object now was to secure, every man 
for himself, as much of the booty as he could ; but for 
this they had to fight hard. When the struggle was over, 
the Baba was found breathing his last, in exclamations 



124 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

ag^ainst those of his own caste and creed. He now produced 
many of the letters which he had received — the forgeries be- 
fore-mentioned — to prove, as he supposed, the treachery and 
villainy of the Sikh chiefs and officers, who, as he believed 
to the last, had written these letters, instigating him to take 
the part of Utter Sing. ' When,' said he to the Sikhs around 
him, 'you and your chiefs and officers wrote these letters to 
me, with the most solemn promises, both to myself and 
Utter Sing, I relied on your good faith, and agreed to your 
proposals, in the hope of obtaining for" Utter Sing and his 
family the means of a quiet livelihood ; but you, calling 
yourselves Sikhs, are worse than Mahomedans. You have 
proved yourselves a vile, treacherous and unfaithful race, 
without pity or religion. Still, my dying prayer to heaven 
is, may even your wickedness be requited by good.' He 
then gave directions that his body should be thrown into the 
river, that his bones might not be left on such a land of 
iniquity," &c., &c. 

Utter Sing was an uncle of Ajeet Sing^ and brother 
of Lena Sing, who were the murderers of Sheer Sing, 
Dh\an Sing, and Pertaub Sing, &c., kc. They were all 
members of the Scindawalla family, and related to Run- 
jeet Sing ; for this reason, Utter Sing embraced the party of 
the Ranee Chund Kour, at the outbreak of the civil con- 
tentions. But the fortress of Lahore having been surren- 
dered to Sheer Sing, Utter Sing took to flight, and so- 
licited protection from the English. It was natural that 
Heera Sing and his counsellor, Jellah Pundit, should 
endeavour to catch him, at any price whatever ; so they 
managed to bring him over to the Baba Beer Sing, in 
order to implicate the holy man in the affair. I related 
before, that Jellah Pundit, through religious fanaticism, 
hated the Baba for having given an asylum to the two unfor- 
tunate princes. Cashmere Sing and Pcshora Sing, after hav- 
ing been driven, by Heera, from the fortress of Seealkote, 
which had been allotted to them as their property. Utter 
Sing permitted himself to be deluded by false promises, 
and repaired to the appointed place, where directions 



Tage 12^ CIIARAENA SOWAR 




which had been allotted to them as their property. Utter 
Sing permitted himself to be deluded by false promises, 
and repaired to the appoiated place, where directions 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 125 

were afterwards given to capture him alive, The plot 
miscarried, it is true. Utter Sing was overwhelmed by a 
superior force, but he shot at and killed the general who 
was about to capture him, which caused the ensuing battle. 

The Sikh army having passed the Sutlej, the soldiers 
became aware that their leaders were playing the part of 
traitors, not doing anything they ought to have done. In 
the before-mentioned history of Smyth, we find the follow- 
ing passage : — 

" They gave vent to their alarm and indignation in fierce 
reproaches on the treachery of their leaders ; but that was 
all they could do. ' We knew,' they said to their leaders, 
' that you had leagued with the court to send us against 
the British, and to pen us up here like sheep, for them to 
come and slaughter us at their convenience ; but remember, 
that in thus acting, you play the part, not only of traitors 
to your country, but of ruthless butchers and murderers. 
You destroy a whole army, which, whatever its faults and 
crimes may have been, has always been ready to obey 
the orders of the state and its officers. We might even 
now punish you as you deserve ; but we will leave you to 
answer to your gooroo and your God ; while we, deserted 
and betrayed as we are, will do what we can to preserve 
the independence of our country," &c., kc. 

During this war of the Sikhs against the English, the 
Rajah Gholab Sing remained neutral at Jummoo, in the 
mountains. It is true he promised his support to the Sikhs, 
but he hesitated in fulfilling them as long as possible. A 
short time previous to the last battle, at Sobraon, some 
hundreds of the Sikh delegated punches (deputies) succeeded 
in drawing out the "bear," as they used to call him, from 
Jummoo, his den. Under the pretext of getting the ord^^r 
from the ranee herself and the durbar, he went, accom- 
panied by them, to Lahore. But this was only done in 
order to procrastinate. Arrived at Lahore, I called on htm, 
because we were well acquainted with each other, and he 
asked me for my advice how he ought to act in that 
critical position. He complained of the embarrassment he 



126 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

was in ; "because," said he, "the same Sikhs who murdered 
my brothers and sons, and who, under Jewahir's administra- 
tion, attempted my own life, are now endeavouring to draw 
me into the field, in order to fight against the English." I 
advised him not to mingle with the affair. This agreed 
with his views, the Sikhs having already lost three battles ; 
and it was more than probable that the fourth, which must 
decide the destiny of the country, would be their last. 
The treacheries of the chiefs having been well known to 
him, I made him aware how prudent it would be to demand 
the eighteen English prisoners at Philoor, and to send them 
to my house, which he did. Meanwhile, the news of the 
defeat at Sobraon reached us, and that the English had 
passed the Sutlej. They requested Gholab Sing to repair to 
Kussoor. He despatched the English prisoners ( among 
whom there was Doctor Benet ) on elephants into the 
English camp, having previously made them presents at the 
durbar ; and three days after, Gholab Sing followed them. 

He chose me to accompany him as a private counsellor ; 
at the first station, Kanekatch, about fourteen miles from 
Lahore, we received news from the city which intimidated 
me.,' It was rumoured that the defeated Sikhs had collect- 
ed the rest of their troops, and intended to kill their com- 
mander, the traitor Teja Sing ; and having done so, that 
they then intended to divide into two parties, one to march 
towards Lahore, to plunder it, and take revenge on the 
ranee and her paramour ; and the other to attack Gholab 
Sing and his retinue, for having first promised them his 
assistance, and instead of that, intending to go to Kussoor, 
to surrender the country to the English. Fearing to be 
attacked during the night, no one allowed himself any 
rest. Gholab Sing placed four cannons which he had with 
him, under the command of Captain Gardner, at some 
distance from our camp, and he himself occupied the whole 
of the night in going the round of the various outposts. 
Happily the Sikhs did not execute either of their intended 
movements, and the next day we arrived unmolested at the 
English camp, in the vicinity of Kussoor. Gholab Sing with 



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THIRTY- FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. IC7 

his suite were not received with much apparent cordiah'ty, 
but when all was settled, and the English had obtained 
what they desired, the scene changed its aspect ; the young 
Dulleep Sing was brought from the capital to give his 
sanction to all the transactions, the English then proceeded 
to Lahore, and thus ended the independence of the once 
powerful state founded by Runjeet Sing. The English 
forces encamped at Meean Meer, about five miles from the 
city. To enfeeble the country, it was divided into three 
parts ; one was left to the Sikhs, the second was annexed 
to the English possessions, and the third, Cashmere, com- 
prising a part of the mountains, was appointed to Gholab 
Sing, as a reward for the services he had rendered, and also 
in consideration of a large sum of money he had delivered 
over to the conquerors. He was promoted to the title of 
Maharajah of Cashmere, which was made independent o-f 
Lahore, but under English protection. Dulleep Sing, after 
having paid the expenses of the war, remained the ruler of 
Lahore, and Lall Sing was appointed his wuzeer. Sir H. 
Lawrence was appointed by the English as Resident, into 
whose hands the reins of Government were entrusted. One 
of his first measures was the reduction of the army, and 
the suspension of several establishments for the manufac- 
ture of military stores, including my powder-mill, &c. In- 
stead of these establishments, an hospital was erected in the 
vicinity of the capital, under the direction of the durbar ; and 
1 was entrusted with the organisation of it. In this hos- 
pital, an asylum for lunatics was estabilshed, and I also 
created another, viz., an hospital for prisoners. 

Rajnh Lall Sing, who had risen from the rank of muleteer 
to be minister of state, did not long enjoy the title of 
wuzeer ; being a crafty Brahmin, of great influence among 
his partisans, and in possession of immense riches, which he 
acquired at the time when he was Runjeet Sing's treasurer 
( he never having rendered any account of the funds under 
his charge ), such a man appeared to the English to be 
dangerous, and his removal was considered necessary 
Accordingly he was arrested as a political intriguer, and sent 



128 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

to Agra, with a stipulated pension. Teja Sing succeeded 
to Lall Sing, and at the same time was appointed Rajah 
of Seealkote, on account of his treachery to his own coun- 
try on the Sutlej. At the ceremony of his inauguration, 
the ranee prohibited her son, DuUep Sing, from making 
the Tike ( saffron sign ) on Teja's forehead, being fully 
persuaded that he had caused the removal of Lall Sing, in 
order to obtain his post. This inconsiderate behaviour of 
the ranee, who exercised a great influence on her son, 
caused the Resident to insure her inofifensiveness by exiling 
her to the fortress of ShegOpur. But not having even 
there remained inactive ( in the revolt at Moultan ), Sir 
Frederick Currie, the then Resident, ordered her to be con- 
veyed into another fortress on the Ganges, her plenipoten- 
tiary, Gangaram, and General Khan Sing having previously 
been hung, as associates in the conspiracy. But the 
cunning lady knew how to provide herself with means^ 
and to find out a method of escaping from her prison ; and 
it is reported that she is now living in Katmandoo, the 
capital of Nepaul, not, however, to the displeasure of the 
English, who thus effect a considerable saving. 

Sir H. Lawrence, perfectly acquainted with all the tricks 
of the orientals, and knowing well how to treat those 
people, succeeded in procuring their general esteem and 
approbation. Nevertheless, a short time after the English 
had occupied the country, a riot took place at the bazaar at 
Lahore, which was so serious that the gates of the city were 
ordered to be shut. The residency was still in the city ; and 
at this critical moment, the resolute Resident, accompanied 
by Major Edwardes and a few sowars ( mounted soldiers ), 
appeared on the spot where the tumult of the mob was 
raging, in order to establish tranquillity ; but they were 
welcomed by the mob with a volley of stones ; Major 
Edwardes received a slight wound on his forehead, and one of 
the sowars a sabre wound. On the request of the Resident, 
Lall Sing caused the ringleaders to be captured ; and one of 
them, a Brahmin, was hung before the city gate, without 
ceremony or hesitation. 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 1 29 

The principal cause of this by no nneans insignificant 
Tiot, was said to be that an English soldier of the garrison 
gave a cut with his sword to an ox, which is esteemed by 
the Brahmins as a sacred animal. Since then, however, 
oxen are not only killed at Lahore, but at Umritsir, the 
holy city, and the meat is publicly sold at the bazaars. 
The Sikhs and Hindoos, who consider the killing of oxen 
and cows to be a capital sin, can do nothing but grieve 
at the sacrilege, and weep at their inability to prevent it. 
Their feelings on this point, however, would sometimes 
take a more active and dangerous turn ; and on one 
occasion, when the Resident gave an entertainment in 
the royal gardens, called Shallemar, to which many ladies 
and gentlemen, and their children were invited, and I 
also happened to be among the number of the guests, we 
were near falling victims to the people's vengeance. By 
good fortune, however, the Resident was apprised of the 
conspiracy, and all preparations were made for our security, 
otherwise it would, I am afraid, have gone hardly with 
us, as the quarters of the troops were at Anarkhali, five 
miles from the gardens. 

Bad health induced the Resident to accompany the 
Governor-General, Lord Hardinge, to England, and Sir F. 
Currie replaced him ; but as he treated the Sikhs with 
more indulgence, not being so well acquainted with oriental 
policy as Sir H. Lawrence, the people soon began to 
abuse his kindness- Two officers also, named Agnew and 
Anderson, both of them unacquainted with the manners 
and customs of the country, and therefore ignorant of the 
proper method of dealing with such a people, were sent, 
accompanied by a native, Serdar Kan Sing, to Mooltan, 
to receive the state accounts from the Mulraj, and to 
take their posts as governors of that district. Both these 
officers were barbarously murdered ; and the natives, as 
if by a given signal, rose in revolt against the English. 
The troops of the provinces Banu-Tank, Hazareh and 
Peshawur also joined the hostile movement ; and a cons- 
iracy was detected at Lahore, in which, as before mentioned, 



130 THIRTY- FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

the ranee was implicated. Their intention was to carry 
away Dulleep Sing, and to bring him into the camp 
of the insurgents. An earnest and bloody struggle arose : 
Dost Mahomed Khan, of Cabul, whom the English released 
a few years ago from prison, took the conduct of the 
Sikhs, and they defeated the English in two battles, at 
Ramnuggur and Chillianwallah ; and it was not before the 
return of Sir H. Lawrence that the English recovered 
their position, by those two deciding battles of Mooltan 
and Gujerat, on the Chenaub river ; after which — viz., on 
the 1st of May, 1849 — the country was annexed to the 
English possessions ; the Sikh durbar was abolished ; and 
my official capacity depending only on the existence of 
that body, was consequently at its end. I solicited a 
pension, which I obtained. Dulleep Sing was sent to the 
interior of India, where he lived upon a pension, derived 
from the revenue of the same country from which I receive 
my own ; the only difference between the two pensions 
being, that I am allowed to expend mine wherever I please. 
The receipt, however, must be at Lahore ; my agent there 
presenting a life certificate, signed by an English authority. 

It was in the year 1839 that I had returned to Lahore, 
after having visited the European continent and my native 
country. I enjoyed the pleasure, on my return, of being 
the companion of General Ventura, who was also hasten- 
ing to India to resume his duties. On our voyage we had 
many conversations, among which, the events which had 
happened during my absence from Lahore underwent 
discussion. On that occasion, the general related to me an 
occurrence which at first I could scarcely believe, thinking 
it a pure invention or a mere joke ; but I soon became 
persuaded that he was in earnest. I give it here with tlie 
remark only, that after having arrived at Lahore, I heard 
it confirmed by other persons, in whose statements I could 
also place confidence. 

Runjeet Sing — thus runs the narative — was told that a 
saat, or faqueer, living in the mountains, was able to keep 
himself in a state resembling death, and would allow himself 



Page iji 



vii 



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IIARIDAS 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 131 

to be even buried, without injuring or endangering his 
life, provided they would remove or release him from 
the grave after the expiration of a fixed time, he being 
in the possession of the means of resuscitating himself 
again. The maharajah thought it impossible. To convince 
himself of the truth of the assertion, he ordered the faqueer 
to be brought to court, and caused him to undergo the 
experiment, assuring him that no precaution should be 
omitted to discover whether it was a deception. In, con- 
sequence, the faqueer, in the presence of the court, placed 
himself in a complete state of asphyxia, having all the 
appearance of death. 

In that state he was wrapped in the linen on which 
he was sitting, the seal of Runjeet Sing was stamped 
thereon, and it was placed in a chest,^..cji which the maha- 
rajah put a strong lock, The chest was buried in a garden, 
outside of the city, belonging to the minister, barley was 
sown on the ground, and the space enclosed with a wall 
and surrounded by sentinels. On the fortieth day, which 
was the time fixed for his exhumation, a great number 
of the authorities of the durbar, with General Ventura, 
and several Englishmen from the vicinity, one of them a 
medical man, went to the enclosure. The chest was brought 
up and opened, and the faqueer was found in the same 
position as they had left him, cold and stiff. A friend of 
mine told me, that had I been present when they en- 
deavoured to bring him to life, by applying warmth to the 
head, injecting air into his ears and mouth, and rubbing 
the whole of his body to promote circulation, &c., I 
should certainly not have had the slightest doubt of the 
reality of the performance. The minister. Rajah Dhyan 
Sing, assured me, that he himself kept this faqueer (whose 
name was Haridas ) four months under the ground, when 
he was at Jummoo in the mountains. On the day of his 
burial, he ordered his beard to be shaved, and at his ex- 
humation his chin was as smooth as on the day of his in- 
terment ; thus furnishing a complete proof of the powers 
of vitality having been suspended during that period. He 
21 



132 THIRTY FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

likewise caused himself to be interred at Jesrota, in the 
mountains, and at Umritsir, and also by the English in 
Hindostan. In the " Calcutta Medical Journal" about 1835, 
there is a full description of the faqueer, and we are there 
informed, that he preferred having the chest in which he 
was enclosed, suspended in the air, instead of its being 
buried beneath the earth, as he feared the possibility of 
his body being attacked by ants, whilst in that middle 
state between life and death. Having, however, refused to 
undergo another trial, several of the English people there 
doubted the truth of the story, and refused credence in 
so astonishing a power.* But it is quite certain that had 
there been any deception as regards the interment of the 
faqueer, rendering his experiment easy of accomplishment, 
those engaged or associated with him, and to whom the 
task of restoring the vital energies was necessarily entrusted, 
would of necessity be acquainted with the mystery, and able, 
since his real decease, to emulate his example ; that, 
however, is not the case. It appears, consequently, that 
the faqueer was the only one then in possession of that 
abih'ty ; and as a further corroboration of this view of the 
case, I may mention that I myself inquired in the Punjab, 
in the mountains and valleys of Cashmere, and in other parts 
of India, and used every exertion to find a person possessed 
of this power, in order to bring him to Europe, or at least to 
Calcutta, but without success. Several Hindoos told me that 
such faqueers set no value upon money ; I replied to them 
however, that at all events they fully appreciated other 
worldly pleasures. They did not like to hear this statement, 
implying that the faqueer was a debauchee. Several com- 
plaints had, however, been made of him, on which account 
Runjeet Sing intended to banish him from Lahore. He 
anticipated the intention, by eloping with a Katrany 
( woman of a Hindoo caste ) to the mountains, where he 

* To corroborate the above, my readers can refer to General Ventura 
( Paris ), and also to Colonel Sir C. M. Wade ( London ), who were 
present, and assisted at the restoration of the faqueer, some accounts of 
Whom have been published from the Colonel's statement. 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 133 

died, and was burned according to the custom of the country. 
His elopement with this woman may serve as a proof 
( in contradiction to other statements ) that he was neither 
an eunuch nor a hermaphrodite. 

Doubtless, it is a difficult task, and not within the 
power of every one to acquire the skill neaessary for the 
performance of this experiment, and those who do succeed 
must undergo a long and continual practice of preparatory 
measures. I was informed that such people have their 
froenulum linguce cut and entirely loosened, and that they 
get their tongue prominent, drawing and lengthening it by 
means of rubbing it with butter mixed with some pellitory of 
Spain, in order that they may be able to lay back the tongue 
at the time they are about to stop respiration, so as to cover 
the orifice of the hinder part of the fosses nasales, and thus 
( with other means for the same purpose, which I shall 
mention ) keep the air shut up in the body and head.* 
Novices, in trying the experiment, shut their eyes, and 
press them with their fingers, as also the cavities of the 
ears and nostrils, because the natural warmth of the body 
might cause such an expansion of the enclosed gas as 
otherwise to produce, by the violence of its pressure, a rupture 
of some of those delicate organs not yet accustomed by 
practice to endure it. This, I am told, is especially the 
case with the eyes and the tympan of the ear. For the 
better acquisition of this power, they are accustomed to 
practise the holding of the breath for a long period. 
They swallow a small strip of linen, in order to cleanse the 
stomach, and by a tube draw a quantity of water through 
the anus into the intestines to rinse them. This is per- 
formed while sitting in a vessel filled with wa er to the 
height of the arm-pits. It is said that the faqueer in 
question, a few days previous to his experiments, took some 
kind of purgative, and subsisted for several days on a 
coarse milk regimen. 0;i the day of his burial, instead of 

* A similar process is explained in some of the Encyclopcedias, in the 
article on " Engastrimythe," or the mechanism of the ventriloquists. 



134 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

foof^, he slowly swallowed, in the presence of the assembl)^, 
a rag of three fingers in breadth and thirty yards in length, 
and afterwards extracted it, for the purpose of removing 
all foreign matters from the stomach, having previously 
rinsed the bowels in the manner I have before mentioned. 
Ridiculous as this operation may appear to the reader, 
Bnd as it appears, indeed, to me also, yet these artists 
must of necessity be complete masters of their body and 
its organism, and possess a more than ordinary power over 
the muscles. We are scarcely capable of swallowing a 
somewhat long piece of maccaroni if it is not well boiled 
and moistened with butter, &c., to render it palatable. It 
is probable, however, that they may have lost the sense of 
taste, and their neck-muscles may be relaxed to such a 
degree that the long linen strip does not meet with any 
resistance in the throat. These preparations being nade, 
the faqueer stopped all the natural openings in the body 
with plugs of aromatic wax, placed back his tongue in the 
manner I have before indicated, crossed his arms over his 
breast, and thus suffocated himself, in the presence of a 
multitude of spectators. On his exhumation, one of the 
first operations is to draw his tongue into its natural 
position ; after this, a warm aromatic paste, made from 
pulse meal, is placed on his head, and air is injected into 
his lungs and also through the ears, from which the plugs 
are withdrawn. By this operation, the pellets in the nostrils 
are driven out with considerable force and noise, and this is 
considered the first symptom of his resuscitation. Friction is 
then strenuously applied all over the body, and at length he 
begins to breathe naturally, opens his eyes, and is gradual- 
ly restored to conseiousness. It is related that, two hundred 
and fifty years ago, in the time of the Gooroo Arjun Sing, a 
Joghee faqueer was found in his tomb in a sitting posture, 
at Umritsir, and was restored to life. This faqueer is 
reported to have been below the ground for one hundred 
years ; and when he revived, he related many circumstances 
connected with the times in which he had lived. Whether 
this tradition be true or false, it is impossible to say ; but 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. I35 

I am of opinion, that he who can pass four months below 
the ground without becoming a prey to corruption, may 
also remain there for one year. Granting this, it is im- 
possible to fix a limit to the time during which a suspen- 
sion of the vital functions may continue, without injury to 
their subsequent power. 

However paradoxical or absurd this statement may 
appear, and however persuaded I may be that many a reader, 
believing himself to be a wise man, will smile at the rela- 
tion, I cannot, nevertheless, avoid confessing freely, that I 
do not entirely reject all the details given respecting the 
circumstance, for as Haller observes : — " In the interior of 
nature no mortal can penetrate ; happy is he who knows 
a small part, even of its surface." We find much credence 
given to such phenomena in the most ancient traditions. 
Who will not remember the history of Epimenides of Creta, 
who, after a sleep of forty years in a grotto there, is re- 
ported to have again re-entered the world from which he 
had so long been separated ? Who will not remember also 
the seven holy sleepers, who, according to a Vatican ma- 
nuscript, were concealed in a grotto near Ephesus, in order 
to escape the persecutions of the Christians, during the 
reign of the Emperor Decius ; and who, 155 years sub- 
sequently, in the time of Theodosius II, returned to con- 
sciousness ? But even rejecting these traditions, have we 
not also similar examples in the animal kingdom ? Have 
not animals, especially toads, been detected in rocks, where- 
in, according to the calculations made, they had been 
enclosed for several centuries, in a state of sleep or torpor, 
and which animals, after having been brought into the air, 
have recovered their vitality ; and it is not necessary to re- 
mind the naturalist of the fact, that many species of animals 
invariably pass the winter season in a kind of sleep, awaking 
iu the spring with renewed and unimpaired energies. 
Among recent cases, which demonstrate the great en- 
durance of human life, is the follwing relation . — At Vienna, 
some years since, a Hungarian was, during a period of twelve 
months, in a comatose state, and his jaw-bones were so 



136 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

firmly closed that it was impossible to open his mouth ;: 
the physicians were consequently obliged to extract some 
of his teeth, in order to administer some remedies and brotb, 
to preserve life ; he nevertheless at last recovered. 

In the Philosophical Transactions for 1705 ( Nov. and 
Dec, Vol. XVII., p. 2r77 ), the history of a case is related, 
which supports what has been previously mentioned : — " A 
man of about twenty-five years of age, living in the 
neighbourhood of Bath, fell suddenly asleep, and continued 
for nearly a month in that state. Two years afterwards,. 
he was again in a similar condition : his jaw-bones closed 
themselves ; he was unable to eat, but fell asleep, and con- 
tinued to be deprived of sensation for seventeen weeks. 
This occurred at the time when barley was being sown, and 
when he again awoke it was quite ripe. In the month of 
August he again fell asleep. He was bled ; stimulating 
remedies were employed ; and every means of restoration 
were used which the medical skill of the period could suggest, 
but in vain ; be did not awake until the month of 
November." In Plott's Natural History of Oxfordshire 
( c. 8., sec. II, p. 196, published in 1677 ), a case is alluded 
to, which, not being generally known, I will quote here, 
it being another evidence of the length of time during which 
a person may exist without nourishment. 

" Rebekah Smith, the servant maid of one Thomas White, 
of Minster Lovel, being above fifty years of age, and of a 
robust constitution, though she seldom ate flesh ( it scarcely 
agreeing with her ), after she came from the communion 
on Palm-Sunday, April 16, 1671, was taken with such a 
dryness in her throat, that she could not swallow her 
spittle, nor anything else to supply the demands of nature • 
and in this state she continued, without eating or drinking, 
to the amazement of all, for about ten weeks, viz., to the 
29th of June, being both St. Peter's and Witney fair day ; by 
which time, being brought very low, her master made inquiry, 
and found out a person who gave him an amulet ( for it was 
supposed she was bewitched ) against this evil ; after the 
application of this amulet, within two or three days' time 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 137 

( though I dare not suppose there was any connection between 
the medicine and the disease ) she first drank a little water, 
then warm broths in small quantities at a time, and nothing 
else till Palm-Sunday again, twelve months after, when she 
began to eat bread and other food as she had formerly 
done ; and the record states that she was then about the 
age of sixty, and still living in the same place, ready to tes- 
tify to the truth of the matter ; as were also Thomas White 
and his wife, who were the only other persons living in the 
house with her, and who would confidently assert ( for they 
carefully observed ), that they did not believe she ever took 
anything whatever in those ten weeks' time, nor anything 
more than what is before mentioned until the expiration of 
the year." 

The London Medical and Physical Journal, Vol. XXXV., 
p. 509, states that : — 

" An account of the sleeping woman of Dunnibald, near 
Montrose, was read by the Rev. James Brewster, at the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh. Her first sleeping fit lasted 
from the 27th to the 30th of June, 1815. Next morning 
she again fell into a sleep which lasted seven days, without 
motion, food, or evacuation. At the end of this time, by 
moving her hand and pointing to her mouth, it was under- 
stood she wanted food, which was given to her ; but she re- 
mained in her lathargic state till the 8th of August, six 
weeks in all, without appearing to be awake, except on the 
30th of June," ire, &c. This case is well authenticated. 

And in J. N. VVillam's Miscellaneous Works, published by 
A. Smith, M. D., p. 339, he states that he had seen many, 
mostly Jews and other aliens, of a dark, swarthy com- 
plexion, sometimes lie six or eight weeks in the torpid in- 
sensible condition above described. 

After this digression I will return to my own adventures, 
having first cited a case in which the remedy called Mumiai, 
and of which mention has been frequently made in this 
book, proved very efficaciou''. 

In the time of the Maharajah Sheer Sing, it happened 
that aa elephant, in spite of all the caution of the driver, 



138 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

and of the animal itself, during the darkness of the night, 
fell into a grave in traversing the ruins of old Lahore. 

Mrs. Van C vvas thrown from her hovvda, and had two 

of her ribs broken by the fall. I may also mention that she 
was at that time in the ninth month of her pregnancy. I 
began my treatment with a c jpious bleeding from the arm, 
and afterwards administered to her one grain of mumiai 
daily, for three successive days, and ordered her to lay 
quietly on her back, so as not to disturb the bandage. On 
the fourth day, when I visited her, she endeavoured, but 
in vain, to make the cracking of the bones audible by 
moving from one side to the other, the union of the fracture 
was already effected by the callus, and a few days subse- 
quently she was delivered of a fine healthy boy with 
much ease. 

About the same time, under Sheer Sing's administration, 
a faqueer struck me from behind with a stone, whilst I 
vyas passing the bazaar at Lahore; I was told that he was 
insane, and had already behaved in the same rude manner 
to some sirdars. On this account I caused him to be 
imprisoned, placed a chain upon bis legs, and had him 
taken to my powder-mill to work. I gave him good food, 
administered remedies, and prohibited him from smoking 
churrus or eating opium, to which habits he was previously 
addicted. Scarcely was he a few days in the mill when 
I was informed that he had been bitten by a serpent, 
and at once sent him some medicaments which I judged 
likely to prevent the ill effects of the venom. On the 
same afternoon I visited him, and found him in good spirits. 
I at first attributed the circumstance to the effect produced 
by the remedies I had sent, but was surprised on hearing 
that he had not taken them, he being of opinion that the 
venom of the serpent was incapable of affecting him, 
inasmuch as he had often been bitten by serpents without 
having sustained any injury. The serpent which wounded 
him on this occasion was a viper, which he had caught and 
retained in his possession, and he offered to allow himself 
to be bitten on the tongue, if 1 would consent to witness 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 1 39 

it. At that time, Dr. \V. Jameson ( now superintendent 
of the botanical garden at Saharunpore ) was on a visit to 
Lahore, and the maharajah showed him great attention, 
which induced me to inform the maharajah of the offer 
made by the faqueer, and I requested him to relate the 
case to Dr. Jameson, as I felt sure he would be interested 
in it. 

As for myself, I doubted the truth of the faqueer's as- 
sertion, and was persuaded that no European physiciaa 
would believe it. Accordingly, I was directed to pressent 
the faqueer to the doctor, who was at that time stopping 
at AnarkuUee. To test the experiment, I took a fowl 
with me. The doctor smiled, when I related to him the 
particulars, and, as I expected, expressed his disbelief of 
the faqueer's statement. However, the faqueer put his hand 
over the pot in which the viper was contained, and he was 
immediately bitten ; he afterwards held the fowl near the pot, 
which was also bitten \ but the doctor still appeared to think 
there was some deception in the matter. I took the fowl 
home, and placed it beneath a basket, where I found it dead 
on the following morning ; although the faqueer, who was 
bitten first, was quite well. I then took him, and also the 
dead fowl, with me, to present them to the maharajah ; and 
having given him a full account of what had been done, 
informed him that both the faqueer and the fowl had since 
been under my surveillance. At his request, the faqueer 
was presented to him. He was accompanied by a mezur 
( workman ), who had just caught a viper, which the faqueer 
had put into the same pot in which the former had been, 
and presented it for the inspection of the assembly, 
Maharajah Sheer Sing asked him whether he would really 
allow himself to be bitten by venomous serpents, and 
whether it was true that he would not thereby sustain injury ? 
The faqneer answerd in the affirmative, and offered to give 
immediate proof of it. He uncovered the pot, and was about 
to present his hand, but the maharajah objected to the 
serpents which the faqueer had brought with him, and said 
that he would order soooe to be procured, He banded to 

22 



140 THIRTY- FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

the faqneer seven rupees, which he had just received as 
cazarana ( present ), but he immediately gave them to the 
mezur, saying, " That is a gift of the son of a laundress," 
and departed. Sheer Sing pretended not to have heard 
this insulting remark, although it was spoken so loud that 
every body noticed it ; and 1 felt much annoyed, having 
been the cause of the introduction of the insolent faqueer. 
I reprimanded him, and gave orders for his re-imprison- 
ment as a lunatic. He had not yet given the maharajah 
a proof of his assertion, and consequently had not deserved 
the reward of seven rupees. The bad consequences of his 
unruly tongue, however, did not fail to overtake him ; 1 did 
not doubt that Sheer Sing would very soon procure the 
serpents which he had ordered, and therefore gave instruc- 
tions to the soldiers who accompanied the faqueer to the 
mill, to bring him early in the morning to my abode, so 
that he might be at hand, in case the maharajah should 
send for us. The next morning the faqueer, on his way to 
me, met with a friend of his, who inquired where he was 
going, and why he was fettered ? He replied that he was 
bound to show to Sheer Sing his ability, and at once, as 
if in bravado, untied the pot which contained his two vipers, 
and caused himself to be bitten by one of them. Scarcely 
had he advanced two steps, when he staggered and fell. 
But he summoned all his strength, and rose again, in order 
to proceed, but again fell • and not being able to rise a 
second time, a charpai ( stretcher ) was brought, to convey 
him from the bazaar to my house. He was followed by a 
multitude of curious people, and I caused him to be taken 
into a neighbouring stable, belonging to the faqueer 
Chirakooddeen, who went immediately to see the patient, 
as he was then vomiting blood. Chirakooddeen was of 
opinion that he could never recover, and the injured 
faqueer being a Brahmin, he wished me to send him to 
a termsale ( an Indian temple ), in order to avoid the 
unpleasant consequences which might attend his death ; 
but, on mentioning this intention to the patient, he pre- 
ferred being conveyed to a friend of his, who was living 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 14! 

at the tower called Shahburj, where he himself had pre- 
viously resided ; which was accordingly done. I gave him 
some remedies, and sent him away ; but scarcely was he 
removed from the stable, when the payahs ( armed atten- 
dants of the durbar ) appeared, summoning me to present 
myself with the faqueer to the durbar. I stated, that he 
had already received the reward of his insolence, and was 
not expected to recover ; but Sheer Sing, who was pro- 
bably much annoyed at the epithet, "son of a laundress," 
despatched several messengers, ordering me to bring him 
to the durbar on his bed ; and I was obliged to obey. 
I arrived, however, too late, for the assembly had already 
left the durbar, and Sheer Sing had departed from the 
Hazooreebagh to the interior of the fortress. On the same 
day, the faqueer had a swelling on his knee, and diarrhoea ; 
but he soon recovered, and afterwards proved very useful 
to me, when I began to make my experiments with the 
serpents, which produced so many curious results, that I 
sacrificed upwards of two hundred fowls in less than six 
months. At that time poultry was remarkably cheap at 
Lahore, the English not having yet occupied that country, 
and four couple could be purchased for one rupee. The 
faqueer really possessed the secret of preventing his blood 
being affected by the bites of venomous reptiles ; and, 
having at length succeeded iu obtaining his statement 
of it, I now present it to the public. The faqueer was an 
arsenic-eater, and to this reason he ascribed the cause 
of his remaining unaffected by any serpent's venom. 
Perhaps he was right, because in India arsenic is an in- 
gredient in various compositions which are recommended 
as remedies against the bite of serpents. He told me, that 
during his stay under my control, he could not procure the 
poison, and that that was the reason why the viper's bite 
affected him, which might possibly have been the case. 

On my journey from Cabul to Bokhara, I met with an 
Affghan physician and horse-dealer, travelling from Bokhara 
who, it was stated, consumed every day one drachm of 
arsenic, in order to maintain bis appetite, which he lost 



142 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN T*IE EAST. 

in the absence of that remedy, and that he had been in 
the habit of using it since his earh'est childhood. He was a 
thick-set, muscular man, of good intelligence, merry hu- 
moured, had a light complexion, and long black hair. The 
proverb proved true with him : — 

" Quod cibus est aliis, aliis est acre venenum."' 
" One man's meat may be another's poison." 

In my numerous collection of serpents, I had only three 
venomous species, namely : — I. The annulated serpent ( As- 
pidoclonion ) ; 2. The cobra di capello ( Aspis Naja ) ; 5. 
Vipers, of different colours and sizes. The first (Aspidocloni- 
on ) is reputed to be the most venomous. Its poison 
afifects the throat immediately, whence the Indian name, 
sungcbure ( neck-strangler ). It is stated that its bite will kill 
the strongest man in one hour, and that no antidote is yet 
known. The length of this serpent is about a yard and a 
half, and it is an inch and a half in diameter. Its back is 
of a dark-grey colour, the belly white, the head not bigger 
round than the body, the tail long and pointed. One span 
below the head, cross-stripes of a white colour commence, 
similar to rings, each one inch distant from the other, which 
run down to the end of the tail. It is stated that they live 
for five hundred years. They cannot easily be excited, 
and consequently they seldom bite. The man who brought 
me such a reptile, took it up with a linen rag tied round 
his hand, opened its mouth with a small stick, introduced 
the neck of a live fowl, and set them both at liberty. 
The serpent held the bird for a few seconds, and then 
released it. The poor animal seemed to be stunned ; it 
did not appear to suffer any pain, but was unable to move, 
shut its eyes, and sat down. I lifted it up, and examined 
the bitten part on the neck. It was scarcely to be detected, 
and looked like the wound from a pin. After the applica- 
tion of some local and interior remedies, it seemed to recover 
a little ; opening its eyes, erecting itself on its legs, and 
having two watery evacuations of a dark-green colour. 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 143 

A quarter of an hour after the bite, it sat down afjain, 
and died. All this lasted about twenty-four minutes. 
Should not the endermatic application of this virus be the 
real and true remedy against the hydrophobia? as this 
poison affects the neck, as well as that of enraged animals. 
"Extremis morbis, extrema remedial" It deserves to be 
tried, if not on man, at least on animals. But many will 
ask, how can we procure those serpents ? to which I reply, 
that as soon as the efficacy of this substance is proved 
in a satisfactory manner, it can easily be procured in 
sufficient quantities from the natives. The reptile can be 
preserved in Europe as easily as others, especially as its 
term of life is stated to be of such a long duration. Having 
found in the slough or cast skin of serpents manifold 
medicinal virtues, when employed in the way I use them in 
my system, it is possible that they would also produce a 
good effect endermatically (introducing them in a pre- 
pared state ), acting as a substitute for the virus. That is 
also the case with inoculation ; in want of the lymph, the 
crust dissolved in water, will answer the same purpose. The 
cobra di capello is less venomous than the annulated serpent, 
though its venom is stronger than that of the viper. The 
joghees in Hindostan earn their livelihood by exhibiting 
the cobra to the public. They carry them in boxes, and 
when the box is opened, they begin to play on a sort of 
bagpipe ; on hearing which, the serpent erects itself, its 
neck swells, and it moves its head alternately to the right 
and left, keeping time to the music as if it were dancing, 
which affords much amusement to the spectators, and some- 
times terror to those who do not know that their venomous 
fangs have been extracted. The bite of the cobra can, as 
well as that of the vipers, be cured, for which purpose spirit 
of sal ammoniac, hartshorn drops, or Eau de Luce, are ex- 
cellent medicaments ; but being seldom at hand when they 
are wanted, I advise, in all cases of bites from venomous 
animals, that the poison should be at once vigorously suck- 
ed from the wound, which will not be productive of any 
prejudicial effect on the healthy mouth or the stomach. 



144 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

It is also advisable immediately to bind a ligature under the 
wound, until the venom is sucked entirely out. Even if 
the animal poison is swallowed in considerable quantity, it 
is quite harmless, as it becomes decomposed by the chyle. 
The poultry which I killed in the experiments I made, 
my cook, who was a Mahomedan, would certainly have pre- 
pared for the table with great repugnance, owing to their 
not having been Halal, t. e., killed in the name of God, by 
letting their blood flow, but had perished whilst the blood 
was in them ; my sweeping man, however, a Bangee of 
the Pariah caste, eat them with avidity, and grew corpulent 
upon the fare. 

The following case may prove that all large serpents are 
not dangerous, but on the contrary, sometimes even useful. 
One day my domestics caught a large one in the surde- 
khana or teikhana ( cellar), which they had killed and thrown 
it into the street. When I observed its extended stomach, 
I was desirous of knowing the contents, and having caused 
it to be opened, we found a rat, which had been swallow- 
ed by the serpent whole, and my domestics regretted having 
destroyed such a brave rat-catcher. 

Speaking of serpents, I may mention here a particular 
disease, which they designate at Lahore, Mar-ashekh (serpent- 
love ), and which, according to their statement, occurs only 
in the Punjab. I never heard of it in any other place ; and 
I mention it, hoping that the English physicians, particular- 
ly those now living in that country, will take the trouble to 
investigate the subject, and ascertain whether this disease 
is peculiar to the Punjab, and why it occurs only between 
the Indus and the Sutlej. 

Should the investigation of this curious disease lead to 
a satisfactory result, and should any one be successful in 
capturing a real musk-deer in the Punjab, 1 should be 
much gratified, and science would be enriched. 

The faqueer Noor-oo-Deen, at Lahore, who at present 
enjoys great respect from the English, for his extended 
knowledge and eminent merits, was the first who directed 
my attention to the disease I have mentioaed, a short time 



Page 14s 



▼111? 




THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. I45 

before my first departure from Lahore in the year 1832, 
and who introduced to me at that time a patient afflict- 
ed with it. It was a laundry man, of the age of sixty, 
although he appeared nearer eighty. He allowed himself 
to be bitten every month by serpents. He was of short 
stature, and of a cachectical appearance ; his perspiration, 
which I perceived at some distance, was peculiarly offensive, 
and was similar to that of serpents. He told me he had 
been troubled with that malady upwards of thirty years : that 
at the commencement he permitted himself to be bitten once 
a year, afterwards twice, but at that time, once in every 
month, and that the serpents followed him even into the 
water. He stated that only four days previously he had 
been bitten on the upper part of his hand, on which I could 
perceive a cicatrix, and he showed me numerous scars on 
his hands and feet, so that I could not doubt the truth of 
his statement. He added, that he had often sucked the 
venom or poison from the wounds of bitten people. I am 
of opinion that he, in sucking the poison from others 
( unless it is neutralized by his saliva ) extracts or diminished 
it ; but, in their own cases, a similar virus being existent 
in their system, every time they are bitten the fresh virus 
neutralizes temporarily the other. Qicery — May not such 
persons be able to neutralize even hydrophobiac poison ? 

The before-mentioned learned faqueer and his four adult 
sons, as also other native hakims, may give a full explana- 
tion of the above case, and procure for the English phy- 
sicians some such patient, so that they may be able to 
satisfy themselves of the fact, and investigate the matter. 
I have seen at least a dozen of them at Lahore, who were 
all males ; and I am told that the number of such patients 
in the Punjab is very large. The nature of the disease is, 
that the patients, at certain periods, have an irresistible 
inclination to be bitten by serpents ; which they say does 
them a great deal of good, as for a few days previously 
they are troubled with fainting and dizziness, nausea, want 
of appetite, disinclination to work, and heaviness in the 
limbs. These are the symptoms of the disease in question ; 



146 THIRTY FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

and at these times the serpents are attracted towards them 
by the scent, and the patients, looking upon them as their 
welcome benefactors, willingly stretch out their hand or foot, 
when the reptile is advancing towards them ; alter the 
serpent has bitten them it retires, and the patient then 
feels relieved. The greater part of such patients are, ouce 
a year, viz., in July or August, visited, wherever they may 
be, by their reptile friends. I met with only a small 
number who required to be bitten twice a-year ; and with 
only one indeed who wanted to be bitten monthly. What 
I have related is certainly a singular fact, and highly in- 
teresting to naturalists. But how is it that this disease is 
peculiar to the Punjab ? The natives assert, that the bite 
( when it is with young ) of the Aniphishcena ( erroneously 
called Dumuha^ two-mouthed sepent ), which is generally 
believed not to be venomous, is the cause of the disease, 
and that the virus at certain periods ferments in the 
human frame. This species of serpent being indigenous 
in America, it is worth inquiry, whether the disease is not 
also to be found in that part of the world ? A patient 
thus afflicted told me, on one occasion, that he was advised 
as a curative process, to seiz*^ the serpent at the moment 
it approached him, and having previously wrapped a cloth 
round its head, to bite it off. By neglecting to envelope 
the serpent's head, he was told that he would lose two of his 
front teeth. 

Some hakims at Lahore recommended as a remedy, 
the fruit of Crataeva Tapia, mixed with oil, which is used 
externally as an ointment. 

After this digression about serpents, the relation of which 
may have been of some interest, it will probably not appear 
superfluous, if I explain the meaning of the expression 
used by the faqueer who performed the experiments with 
the vipers, in calling the maharajah, the "son of a 
laundress." 

One of the wives of Runjeet Sing gave birth to a girl, 
at Vetalah, and in those countries the birth of a female 
child is not considered as a happy or fortunate event. 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. I47 

By chance a laundress in the neighbourhood brought forth 
at the same time, a strong boy. The ranee having been 
apprised of this, and wishing to have a male child at any 
price, arranged with the laundress to exchange the new- 
born infants. But nothing beneath the sun can remain 
concealed, says the proverb ; Runjeet Sing became acquaint- 
ed with the fact ; but he showed no displeasure at the 
bargain, and adopted the child as his son. He gave him an 
excellent education ; and the abilities of the adopted son 
soon developed themselves, and caused the maharajah to 
entertain great regard for him, and he was treated with equal 
respect to the royal prince ; as for instance, he ordered 
both to be presented with chairs ( an honour paid only to 
the highest rank ), whilst the ministers and sirdars were 
obliged to occupy inferior seats. Ultimately, with the as- 
sistance of the minister Dhyan Sing, and that of the troops, 
after three days' hard struggle, he ascended the throne. 
Like Runjeet Sing, he was a friend to all Europeans, 
especially to his neighbours the English, to whom he gave 
support after the catastrophe at Cabu). The murdered royal 
prince, No-Nehal Sing, might not have acted in the same 
manner, and the English may regard his death as a for- 
tunate event. Having thus given a brief account of the 
political events, &c., of the country in which I spent so con- 
siderable a part of my life, I will now present to the reader 
a more ample detail of the medium system to which I 
alluded in my preface, and also a full account of the incidents 
which prompted me to adopt that system, feeling persuaded 
it will prove an interesting subject. 

My readers are aware that besides the AUoeopathia which 
I practised for many years, I also tried the Homoeopathic 
method, and my own experience, as well as that of others, 
brought me to the conclusion that a rational physician may 
derive successful results from both systems. Nevertheless, I 
found that the enormous doses generally administered by 
the Alloeopaths, and also the infinitesimal ones used by the 
Homoeopaths, were both of them far less beneficial than 
they should be. This observation induced me to investigate 
23 



148 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

the matter with much earnestness ; and in the extensive 
practice which I had at Lahore, I was induced to adopt the 
medium between those two extremes. I know well, that in 
politics the system of juste milieu does not enjoy a ^reat 
degree of credit, especially since Louis Philippe has lost 
by it the throne of France ; but that which is incongruous 
and inconsistent in politics, may be otherwise in the empire 
of science ; and the numerous successful results which I 
have found this medium system to have effected, have tend- 
ed most strongly to confirm that opinion. To support my 
assertion, I may cite the two well-known words of the 
Greek — Mydev ayav ~Ne quid nvnis — " Too much is as bad 
as too little," as they say in England. 

Soon after the death of Runjeet Sing, in the year 1840, 
I began to experiment upon this new principle ; and five 
years afterwards, the epidemic cholera raged at Lahore. 
It proceeded slowly from middle Asia, or Turkistan, through 
Cabul and Peshawur, as we learned from the "Delhi Gazette", 
in which it was stated that the epidemic was taking a direc- 
tion towards the East Indies. I thus had sufficient warning, 
previously to its arrival at Lahore, to prepare myself for 
its reception. It was a dreadful spectacle, to witness the 
fury with which it swept away its victims. At its first 
appearance, the Hindoos and Sikhs conveyed the bodies 
of the deceased through the gate called Tunksallee-Derwazeh, 
because of its being near to the river Ravee, on the banks 
of which they were accustomed either to burn the corpses 
or throw them into the river ; but owing to the progress 
of the cholera, the number of funerals became so great that 
the passages of the bazaars were interrupted, and the govern- 
ment was obliged to issue an order that the dead should 
be carried through other gates also ; and thus the Sikhs and 
Hindoos were, like the Musselmen, carried through the re- 
spective twelve gates of the city. When the epidemic had 
reached its height, there were upwards of eight hundred 
deaths daily, out of a population of about 70,000. During 
that fatal period L had the opportunity of making a large 
number of experiments ; but the six weeks during which 



TIIIRTV-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 149 

the disease rajjed passed rapidly away ; and, but for the 
horrible suffering which its longer duration would have en- 
tailed upon its victims, I could almost have wished, for the 
interest of mankind, that my opportunities of observation had 
been still further extended, in order to enable me to arrive 
at results which might have been more prolific of benefit to 
suffering humanity. For instance, I began, during the 
decrease of the cholera, namely, during the last three weeks, 
to try the effect of galvano-electric rings as a preventative. 
I caused a few hundreds to be made, some of copper and 
zinc, and others of silver and zinc, which I distributed gratis, 
and observed, that whilst some of those who wore the rings 
of copper and zinc fell victims to the disease, those who 
were the silver and zinc rings were all saved. It is true, that 
some of the latter became infected with the disease, but the 
attacks were of so slight a nature that, in my opinion, 
they would have recovered without any medical assistance. 
But I must repeat, that this was only at the time when 
the disease was already on the decline; and since that period, 
I have had no other opportunity of making further 
observations in that country ; consequently, I cannot assert 
that this preventative is infallible. However, to ascertain still 
further the value of these rings for the purpose indicated, 
1 ordered some hundreds of them to be made during my 
stay at Vienna, in the autumn of 1850, at the period when 
that Asiatic guest took up its residence in that capital. I 
presented them gratuitously to many persons, and I have 
not heard of a single fatal attack attending the wearers. 
Many medical men and others expressed their opinions upon 
the subject, and thought the idea a ridiculous one ; but the 
future will show whether I am mistaken or otherwise. Some 
of the wearers of these rings at Lahore stated that they 
diffused warmth in the finger on which they were worn, in 
fact I observed a sort of rash to break out on the part on 
which they wore the rings, and they were obliged to discon- 
tinue wearing them for a few days, or place them on the 
other hand. One ring is quite sufficient for one person 
although the wearing of several would do no harm. Bracelets 



150 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, 

buckles, and" chains produce still greater effects, and I anrj 
of opinion that such rings, &c., are not only useful during 
the cholera, but are beneficial in many other respects. I 
have myself enjoyed the best of health during the last six 
years, which I attribute in a great measure to the wearing 
of a ring of this description. I must observe that those who 
make use of such galvano-electric rings, ought not to be 
anxious when experiencing any slight indisposition, and 
should avoid resorting at once to strong remedies, lest the 
ill effects of those remedies should be attributed to the 
ring, and thus destroy the confidence of the vi^earer, and 
lead to a false conclusion. While advising persons to wear 
such rings, it is not, however, to be considered that they 
are talismans or amulets ; their virtues are of another 
character, which I will endeavour to explain. We know well 
what mighty influence the electric and magnetic fluid ex- 
ercises on the material world, and that it produces many of 
those wonderful phenomena, which the wisdom of antiqui- 
ty was unable to explain ; but our modern naturalists 
have succeeded, if not in absolutely discovering the hitherto 
hidden secrets of nature, at least in lifting a portion of 
the veil which conceals them. There is no doubt that an 
electro-magnetic fluid is diffused through our most subtile 
nerves, its source or battery is the brain, and it is probable 
that the wise Creator, for that reason, has there united all the 
organs of sensation. Through the continual mild and slight 
stimulation which these rings produce upon the nervous sys- 
tem, in consequence of their affinity with the electric fluid 
existing in the body, we may believe them to operate in a 
manner analogus to lightning conductors, and thus to main- 
tain the functions of the nerves in their normal state. I re- 
fer the reader, as regards the construction of these rings, to 
the illustrations of those which I distributed at Lahore and 
Vienna, as given in the second volume of this work. 

In the last year of my sojourn at Lahore, 1849, I observ- 
ed, in the English medical journals, a description of a 
galvano-electric apparatus, consisting of one zinc and one 
silver plate, united by a silver wire, and the statement of its 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, 151 

effects, especially upon ulcers and similar cases. This induc- 
ed me to make some experiments in cases of this description, 
in which I succeeded ; especially at the prisoners' hospital, 
where two brothers had on their feet two cancerous ulcers, 
which were completely eradicated, the one in four, and 
the other in six weeks. At the same period, it happened 
that several cases of sporadic cholera occurred ; and, having 
ascertained the before-mentioned apparatus to be effica- 
cious, and persoaded, as I was, of the benefit of my rings, 
which are composed of the same materials — silver and zinc — 
I determined to make an experiment with the apparatus 
upon these cholera cases, which proved to be of the 
greatest utility. It was quite natural that when I imagined I 
had solved that enigmatical question — the positive method 
of curing cholera — I should endeavour to put ray method in 
practice during the raging of that epidemic in Vienna ; 
and I accordingly made application to the Minister of the 
Interior, soliciting him to allow me to attend some of the 
cholera-patients at the hospital. The Minister consented ; 
but the interval between my soliciting and obtaining the 
permission was so long, that the real type of the disease no 
longer existed : the cases were mere malignant cholera- 
typhus. Scarcely one of those I saw at the hospital re- 
covered. I only attended three patients. The first removed 
the apparatus from her body, without any one being 
cognisant of the fact, and died on the following day ; 
the second was brought to the hospital in a senseless, 
dying condition, so that I thought it unnecessary to apply 
the plates ; and the third patient continued to exist until 
the eleventh day. As the cholera-patients, however, with or 
without appetite, were compelled to subsist on meat soups 
containing parsley, celery, onions, &c. ; and the medicines 
which were administered were prepared by their own 
apothecary ; and as the disease was on the decline ; I 
discontinued my attendance, without arriving at any de- 
finite conclusion. 

At Lahore, I performed some operations while the patients 
were under the influence of chloroform ; and among these 



152 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

were two boys who were troubled with stone in the bladder. 
Both were operated on with the apparatus altus, with the 
assistance of Dr. Hathway, the surgeon to the Residency. 
But the operation on one of them, the most healthy-looking 
lad, terminated fatally, which may be attributed to the stone 
being attached to the mucous membrane of the bladder, 
The mother of this boy gave him secretly, shortly after the 
operation, a quantity of butter with sugar, believing it would 
strengthen the patient. The boy began to vomit in a 
violent manner, felt oppressed, and started from his sleep ; 
and this may possibly have accelerated his death. The 
other boy recovered. A year previously, assisted by Dr. A. 
Hening, I operated on a boy labouring under the same 
disease ; the operation was effected after he had inhaled 
the vapour of ether, and he remained drowsy for three days. 
The cure, however, was speedily effected, although two large 
stones had to be extracted from the neck of the bladder, 
which were with great difficulty withdrawn. My colleague 
began to doubt, whilst 1 was operating, whether any stone 
at all existed. But instead of one, there were, as I have 
already mentioned, two large ones. 

As regards these anaesthetic agents, I prefer the inhaling 
of ether to the application of chloroform, although I must 
confess, that much depends on its being properly prepared 
and skilfully administered. Dr. Hathway performed, in my 
presence, many successful operations with chloroform. We 
procured ours from Kanpore. I also performed, assisted by 
Dr. Hathway, two amputations at the gaol hospital, whilst 
the patients were under the influence of ether, without 
either of them uttering a word ; nevertheless, I adhere to 
the opinion of those who assert that the tenth part of 
chloroform mixed with ether makes a preferable composition. 

At Lahore I made the acquaintance of a native Mahome- 
dan stone-operator, who, like the other native surgeons of 
the east, extract the stone through the perineum, according 
to the old method of Celsus. Two fingers of the left hand 
are oiled, and introduced as far as possible into the rectum, 
whilst the operator presses with his right hand somewhat 



154 TIIIRTV-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 



among the natives. Sometimes I could not forbear laughing, 
when at consultations with the hakims ; but I thought that 
when among wolves one must howl also. On one occasion, 
we deliberated about curing a chronic gonorrhoea, on which 
occasion a hakim proposed the local balneum cucurbitae 
citrulli : a water-melon was proposed to be procured and 
opened, the contents of it to be crushed, and the membrum 
virile una cum scroto introduced. Another, boasting of his abi- 
lity, brought a still better remedy on the carpet',recomending 
it as a probatum est. This highly praised remedy consisted 
in roasting a sugar-melon, wrapped in dough, and while luke- 
warm making a hole therein per quod foramen penis erectus 
inserendus et semen virile injiciendum esset. Risum ten- 
eatis amici ! — But we did not employ either, a hakim of 
Peshawur prescribing pills of camphor, convolvolus argente- 
us, opium, pyrethrum and zedoaria ; these, together with 
some injections of solution of sulphates of zinc and copper 
which I administered, produced the desired result, and the 
patient was cured within a month. 

These consultations were generally held in the presence 
of the patient, so that he might choose whichever remedy he 
preferred. In the assembly of the hakims, the Persian 
language was spoken, and the technical terms used were 
Arabic, which no patient could understand ; but if there 
were present any Hindoo physicians or pundits ( astrolgers ), 
which was always the case when consultations were held 
at respectable houses, then the Indian language was 
spoken, because generally the Indians are not versed in the 
Persian. 

Alms are given on every occasion of illness, but mostly 
at the time when the patient's last hour seems to be near ; 
and consequently large numbers of poor faqueers and 
Brahmins assemble on these occasionsjat the entrance to the 
houses, especially of those inhabited by wealthy people. 

Chronic diseases are temporarily treated with a compo- 
sition of myrobalons ; and in the following spring china-root 
decoctions are employed. This is their last resource ; which 
corresponds with the "change of air" recommended by our 



/''^^' KU 



IX 




-^tWJISV-.., 



^ -f^-:,-^ 






■•'••I .il:, ».y? V 



v'f^m.^ 







4 



THIRTY-FIVE YKARte I»N THK EAST. 155 

European physicians, that being the panacea Invariably 
resorted to by the latter, when they are at a loss what to do 
with their patients. 

I have already mentioned the asylum for lunatics which 
I established at Lahore, and will now inform the reader of 
the origin of that establishment. 

Major Mac Gregor, the director of the police at Lahore, 
on passsing the bazaar on horseback, was one day stopped by 
a woman, who was believed to be insane. On account of 
this accident, the Resident issued an order that the durbar 
should establish an asylum for such persons. I was consulted 
upon the subject, and it was resolved that such patients 
should be received into my hospital. Accordingly, many 
lunatics were brought there, and they were generally 
followed by a great many curious spectators. I succeeded 
in curing, in the course of two months, the first five in- 
dividuals under my superintendence, which fact I communi- 
cated to the Rajah Teja Sing, and he order-ed me to present 
them to the assembly at the Residency of Anarkullee : 
which I did. But they manifested no desire to see them, and 
looked upon the matter with indifference, by which I began 
to perceive that my stay at Lahore was near its end, and that 
the best thing I could do was to return to Europe. Neither 
did I think it necessary to wait for the arrival of my 
assistants, whom I had, with the permission of the govern- 
ment, requested to come over ; namely, an apothecary and 
a surgeon, from Europe. Both of these gentlemen had 
received from me 3,000 florins for the expenses of their 
journey, and I intended also to pay their salaries from my 
own private purse ; for as my health was on the decline, in 
consequence of the many affairs to which I had to attend, 
I was really longing for some relief. 

The indifference shown to me, however, in the Residency, 
did not prevent me from presenting the restored lunatics to 
the native durbar at the fortress, and I was ordered to send 
them to their respective homes. The woman who stopped 
the police director at the bazaar I presented to Major ]\Iac 
Gregor when he was in the Kotchery ( office ). They had 
24 



156 THIRTY- FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

committed her to me in a most miserable state, nearly 
naked, and fettered like a wild beast ; now she was dressed 
in a white gown, and looking quite genteel. Without 
having been invited to sit down, she took her seat modestly 
between the Sherishtedars, or clerks, and behaved with 
great decorum. The people looked first at one another, and 
then at the woman, as if, though conscious of her identity, 
they could scarcely credit the evidence of their own senses. 
Even Major Mac Gregor was astonished, and asked me what 
I had done to make her behave so well ? My answer was, 
"by cleanlinesSj some physic, douche-baths, decent dress, 
good food, amusements, occupation, presents, promises, &c., 
&c. ; all this, connected with good treatment, scarcely ever 
fails to bring back such poor creatures to a state of reason. 
I never beat them, never ill-treat them, but I prevent them 
from doing any mischief to others or to themselves." This 
reply highly pleased the -Major. The woman in question 
was about forty years of age, and when she was committed 
to my care, she was so furious that every one feared her. 
She was jumping about, beating all whom she met, and 
would have flung stones and other projectiles at any one 
near her, if she had not been prevented ; but her fury soon 
subsided, she became as quiet as she had formerly been 
boisterous, and was scarcely able to walk. On an examina- 
tion, I found her suffering from the syphilitic disease. I 
asked her how long she had had that disorder ; she answered, 
a long time. Probably she had a lu{:s occulta, which might 
have been the cause of her mental complaint, only when the 
lues broke out again she got rid of the disorder. I regret 
having neglected that opportunity of trying what effect 
syphilitic inoculation might have produced. This woman 
gave me a curious relation of what had occurred to her, 
and which she stated to have been the primitive cause of 
her madness, She told me that she had sometime since 
spent all she was worth on the occasion of the marriage of 
her only son, but no sooner had the bride arrived than 
she discovered her to be an hermaphrodite. She made her 
complaint to the kardar ( magistrate ) of the village without 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 1 57 

obtainFnf* any satisfaction, because the judj^e inclined to 
that side where the money was in greater abundance. This 
fact induced her to go to Lahore and apply to the English for 
redress. On this occasion she lost her reason. Nevertheless, 
she stopped the right person at the bazaar — the director 
of police, he having probably been pointed out to her as 
the superior judge, to whon^i she should apply. At Lahore, 
I had the opportunity of seeing several hermaphrodites, who 
enjoyed the privilege of being admitted at all births and 
nuptial festivals, to congratulate the parties and get presents, 
this being, in fact, their sole means of subsistence, Tlie 
birth solemnities, however, only take place when the child 
is of the male sex, never, on any occasion, at the birth 
of a female. They go so far in this matter as to conceal 
the latter event ; and the greatest part of the inhabitants 
of the Punjab, whether Musselmen, Sikhs, o«- Hindoos, are 
all quite happy when a new-born female departs this life. 
They would consider it an insult, should any one con- 
prratulate the parents on the birth of a female. I am sorry 
to have to relate a fact which is so very uncomplimentary 
to the ladies, but the first duty of an historian is to tell 
the truth. If the fair sex in Europe are desirous of know- 
ing why such little regard is paid to their charms, they need 
only ask the first Hindoo they may meet with, and he will 
give them the ungallant answer, that a son brings money 
into the house, whilst a daughter carries it away. 

One of the before-mentioned lunatics, whom I cured, 
was a brother-in-law of the Maharajah Runjeet Sing, name- 
ly, Mirza, brother of the famous Goolbegum. He was fond 
of smoking churrus, and used to quarrel, when intoxicated, 
with his brother and sister ( Nobab and Goolbegum ), about 
the estates which Runjeet Sing gave them. He again be- 
came insane, and they committed him once more to my 
care, where he remained until he promised them in writing 
never thenceforth to smoke churrus, or quarrel with them. 
On account of this, Goolbegum took him to her abode in 
the fortress, so that he might be properly watched. I met 
him there several months afterwards in perfect health. 



158 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN TUB EAST. 

Having mentioned the habit of smoking churrus; I will 
make the reader acqujainted with some other intoxicating 
materials that are used by the natives. An agreeable in- 
toxicating beverage is prepared by the inhabitants of the 
Punjab from the hemp plant. It is especially indulged in by 
the Nahungs, faqueers, and the poorer classes, as they are 
unable to procure more expensive spirits. Those who 
abstain from opium and poppy-heads, also make use of a 
draught df this hemp liquor ; for it is notorious, that those 
who are addicted to opium must daily get their accustomed 
draught, otherwise they suffer pain in all their limbs. This, 
however, does not occur in using the hemp plant, as they 
can abstain from it without any unpleasant effects ; and 
in my opinion it is the least prejudicial of all the intoxicating 
beverages generally used. The longing for this drink, 
especially among the lower classes of the population, induced 
the late government at Lahore to devote a certain sum for 
its preparation and distribution. Not far from the outside 
of the Delhi gate, near the road to Umritsir, close by my 
hospital, there was an establishment called Seid Gunge, 
where this beverage was delivered gratuitously. As might 
be expected, the Nahungs flocked there in hordes, and this 
munificence was greatly abused. I made several trials on 
myself, my friends, and my domestics, to ascertain its effects ; 
and I found that Inebriation commenced about half-an-hour 
after taking it, and lasted about three hours, upon which a 
sound sleep ensued. Those who have partaken of it, feel 
no ill effects on the following day ; th&re is none of that 
headache, giddiness, or nausea, &c., which generally follows 
inebriation from wine or spirits, The intoxication is accom- 
panied by a good appetite, and the imbibers become ex- 
cessively jovial ; laughing, joking, and talking, often without 
control. Even if the stomach is surfeited, no ill effect is 
experienced ; the digestion is not thereby impaired, and no 
costiveness is to be feared. In the Bengal Dispensatory, 
p. 584, it is stated that the composition of cannabis indica, 
called majoon, is most fascinating in its effects, producing 
e^atic happiness, a persuasion of high rank, a sensation 



Page 1^8 




,.. 'j1., />• 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 159 

of flying, voracious appetite, and intense aphrodisiac desire. 
In the same Dispensatory, p. 594, it is mentioned that in 
several cases of acute and chronic rheumatism, half-grain 
doses of the resin were given, producing unequivocal aphro- 
disia, and great mental cheerfulness; alleviation of pain in 
most instances, and remarkable increase of appetite in all. 

Disorders of the mind, occasioned by continual inebria- 
tion from the hemp plant, have been cured by blisters 
placed on the nape, leeches on the temples, and exciting 
nausea by very small doses of tartar emetic or salt purga- 
tives. The preparation of the hemp plant beverage is as 
follows : — Any quantity of the dried hemp plant is washed 
in a vessel with cold water, to cleanse it from the seeds, 
stalks, earth, and other impurities ; it is afterwards pressed, 
dried in the sun, and kept for use. A portion of this clean 
dried hemp herb, mixed with a few kernels of pepper, is 
put into a saucer, and crushed with a wooden rubber, pour- 
ing thereon occasionally a little water ; when it is complete- 
ly crushed, and becomes a pap, more water is then gradu- 
ally added ; it is then filtered through a piece of coarse 
linen, that the fine particles of the herb may flow equally 
through, and the liquor must be drunk before it makes any 
sediment, the effect being principally produced by the resin- 
ous particles of the herb, which are not very soluble in 
water. For beginners, one or two scruples of the dried plant 
will produce intoxication ; those who are confirmed in the 
habit can take from two to four drachms, and a few invete- 
rate drinkers can take even an ounce. Iftheherap herb is 
mixed with almonds, melon or pumpkin seeds, sugar, spirits, 
&c., or if milk is used instead of water in its preparation, 
the beverage is of course more agreeable, 

Majoon is an aromatic confection of cannabis indica, and 
is used in Turkey, Arabia, Persia, India, and Egypt, 
Some people adulterate the majoon with the seeds o{ datura 
stramonii, which increases the intoxicating effect. Sometimes, 
instead of using the hemp plant beverage, they use a butter 
containing the effective parts of the plant. In the prepara- 
tion of this, they take equal parts of cleansed hemp herb and 



l60 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

of butter, to which is added some water, and they are boiled 
together until the water becomes entirely absorbed. Whilst 
warm, it is pressed through a loosely woven linen, into 
a vessel filled with cold water ; and this butter, which is 
of a green colour, may be washed again, either with pure 
water or rose-water. They sometimes boil a certain quan- 
tity of cleaned hemp herb in half water and half milk, 
till half of it is evaporated ; it is then strained and curdled. 
The butter is afterwards, in the usual manner, separated 
from the coagulation, and contains the effective ( i. e., the 
resinous ) part of the herb. Five to ten grains of this com- 
position is a sufficient dose. It can be flavoured with spices, 
such as pepper, cinnamon, saffron, ginger, &c., and sv/eeten- 
ed with sugar ; and by means of isinglass or gum tragacanth^ 
it can also be converted into lozenges, which I used as bon- 
bons at Lahore. It is true, I could administer them only to 
Musselmen ; the Sikhs and Hindoos being unwilling to take 
any medicines prepared with liquids by European hands, 
but invariably obtaining them from us in a dry state, 
mixing them in their own vessels, and using water pro- 
cured by themselves. This difficulty, however, was after- 
wards removed, when the hospital was established ; for as 
patients of every nation met with a liberal reception, the 
Sikh government, aware of the religious restrictions in that 
country, appointed a certain number of Hindoo attendants 
by whom the remedies were prepared, and took care also 
to provide me with some water from the river Ganges for 
the preparation of the medicines. The intoxicating drug 
called churrus, used for smoking, is prepared as follows : — 
the fresh and ripe hemp plant is held over a mild fire to 
soften it, and afterwards bruised in a mortar till it becomes 
a compact mass. Another very curious method of obtaining 
it is, by persons wearing leather breeches passing through 
the hemp-fields, so that they come in contact with the hemp 
plant, by which a quantity of the resinous substance attaches 
itself to the leather garments and other parts of the body, 
which they afterwards scrape off and collect. But the best 
way is to gather the resinous parts by rubbing the plant in 



Page i6i 



XI 




THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. l6r 

Its growing state v^ith the hands. In the bazaars of India, 
the differen-t sorts of churrus are sold under various names, 
as Bokharian, Jarkandian and Cashmerian ; but the best is 
called churrus mumiai, i. c, wax-like churrus. 

Churrus is never used as an interior remedy. I have 
made different trials with it, and refer for a further descrip- 
tion of its qualities to the second volume of this work. 

The general use of churrus consists in mixing it with 
tobacco, and smoking it in the hooka ( water pipe ), and the 
natives sometimes place themselves in a circle around the 
hooka, each taking a few inhalations, and then passing the 
tube to another. The inebriating power of churrus mani- 
fests itself immediately, but also ceases very speedily. Its 
immoderate use frequently produces mental derangement. 

The Sikhs are forbidden smoking tobacco, and con- 
sequently from smoking churrus also, inasmuch as it is 
always mixed with tobacco. As a compensation for this 
deprivation they are permitted to use opium and spirituous 
liquors to any extent, whence the great number of opium- 
eaters among those people, both males and females, in all 
classes of society. 

The cannabis indica, has a similar appearance to our 
cannabis sativa, but they are very different in their proper- 
ties, and it is remarkable that the former loses its effective 
virtue when transmitted to Europe. It is asserted that even 
the resinous extract which was prepared at Calcutta, was 
less energetic at London than in India. If that be the case, 
I ascribe the circumstance to the difference of the climate, 
or its conveyance over the sea, having myself experienced 
that several medicaments, which I had brought with me 
from those countries, lost their virtue during my six months' 
voyage down the Ganges and across the ocean. It 
has yet to be ascertained whether our cannabis sativa would 
be of the same effective nature in India as in Europe. The 
apparent difference between those two plants consists only 
in the size of their seeds, those of the cannabis indica being 
smaller than those of the European plant. 

Opium, as I have already mentioned, is also extensively 



l62 THIRTY-FIVE VEARS IN THE EAST. 

used in India, and is still more detrimental than the other 
intoxicating drutj^s whose preparation and use I have been 
describing ; ample particulars respecting the effects produc- 
ed by it will be found in the second volume. The abuse 
which the inhabitants of India make of this poisonous drug 
is freqeuntly carried to such an extent that all medical 
assistance proves vain and futile. As an example, I will 
mention the case of a lady who poisoned herself by the 
excessive use of this drug, a short time previously to the 
annexation of the Punjab. This lady took poppy juice 
mixed with oil, which is the usual method adopted when 
they wish to baffle medical assistance. Her motive for 
committing suicide, was jealousy, her husband having 
another wife, whom she believed to enjoy the love of her 
consort in a higher degree than herself. The magistrate, on 
hearing of the circumstance, requested me to attend her. 
An hour had passed since she had taken the opium, and I 
found her in the full possession of her senses, which she 
retained up to her last moment. She was sitting on her 
bed, and related to me calmly what she had done. In order 
to lose no time, I began to administer some remedies, and 
ordered her to be conveyed to my hospital. But she was 
past all remedy, and after having been for twenty-four hours 
in a -sitting posture she fell back dead, as if struck by 
apoplexy ; she had previously complained of feelingj severe 
pains in her limbs, and requested her son to pinch theoa 
continually. 

Those who desire to abstain from the habit of taking 
opium, or drinking the cold infusion of poppy-heads, are 
recommended to take a large quince, and having cut away 
a portion, and made a cavity in the centre, to weigh it, and 
then to put in the tenth part of its weight of opium ; the 
opening is then to be filled up with the piece of quince ; 
and, enclosed in a paste, it is placed amidst hot embers, and 
left until the paste has become charred. The quince is then 
to be taken out, cleaned from its burnt coat, and the re- 
mains of the opium thrown away, the effective part of it 
having been absorbed by the quince. Of this preparation 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 163 

they should take daily the same quantity as they had been 
accustomed to take of opium. At Bokhara I saw a hakim 
of Kashgar, who acquired some reputation for his skill 
in curing opium-eating, which he performed in the course 
of three days. On the first day, he gave one drachm of a 
powder, probably smilax china, rnixed with water ; on the 
second, he ordered four other smaller powders, ( probably 
cortex radicis daturoe stramonii, with sugar ) to be taken at 
intervals of three hours, each of them weighing 10 grains, 
which produced a stupor. On the third day, he gave a 
drastic purgative, the principal ingredients of which was 
semen crotonis tiglii, after which he gave them a decoction 
of liquorice root ad libitum. On this critical day the patient 
was allowed no food, and during the three days of that 
•treatment he was carefully watched, lest he should taste 
brandy or other intoxicating beverages, which would pro- 
duce injurious consequences to the patient. On the fourth 
day the patient was set free, and felt no desire to take 
either spirits or opium, the effect of the cure having been 
to produce an aversion to them. In Europe also, spirit 
drinkers are weaned from their bad habits by mixing some 
spirits with all their provisions, which has the effect of dis- 
gusting them with the flavour. In a Persian book, the fol- 
lowing remedy for the above-mentioned abuses is recom- 
mended, and which professes to have the advantage of 
effecting the cure in one day ; namely, the before-mentioned 
bark of the thorn-apple root, mixed with water ; this is 
administered until it produces intoxication almost to mad- 
ness ; when the patient is in that state, his body is to be 
rubbed with v/arm oil, and continued till he falls asleep. 
In that state he remains generally nine hours. On his 
awaking he appears like a drunken man, but on continuing 
to rub the body with oil for about two hours after his 
awaking, he becomes perfectly cured. His first drink must 
be milk and water. It is said that the decoction of China- 
root is efficacious in preventing the pain in the muscles 
which is experienced after abstaining from opium, and in 
curing those which owe their origin to the immoderate use 
2t; 



164 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, 

of it. It would, perhaps, be worth while to try the effect 
of rubbing the body with warm oil, either with or without 
the administration of the bark of the thorn-apple, or China- 
root, &c., in cases of intoxication, or poisoning by opium. 
The following experiment by Magendie proves that narcotin 
may produce different effects, according to the different com- 
binations in which it is administered. One grain of narcotin, 
dissolved in olive oil, killed a dog in twenty-four hours, 
but 24 grains, dissolved in acetic acid, were administered 
to another without any prejudicial effect. In its natural 
state it is still less energetic, and 129 grains did not do the 
least harm. From these experiments, it may be conceived 
how easily medical skill may be baffled by the combination 
of the drug with oil, as in the case of the lady whose 
suicide I have already mentioned, I cited a receipt of a- 
Kashgar physician, and another taken from a Persian book, 
and I could cite a still greater number of similar receipts, 
which however, are all possessed of some peculiarity or 
oddity. It is true, that we cannot deny the utility of some, 
but most of them are of such a nature, that it is scarcely 
conceivable how the human brain could invent such ridi- 
culous imaginations. The following may serve as an ex- 
ample of Persian wisdom, and I mention it for the benefit 
of our accoucheurs, who may make use of it if they choose. 
It is nothing less than a method of replacing an abortion 
of two months, and of carrying it to maturity. For that 
purpose they say, the embryo must be wrapped in some 
raw yellow silk, bestrewed with sugar and semen sisymbrii 
irzonzs, and then swallowed by a wife or girl, which will 
produce the desired result. It is quite indifferent whether 
it is swallowed by the mother or any other female, only that 
when a girl is to undergo this operation she must be of 
the age of puberty. When the child is born, it will come 
forth with the silk on its feet! I hope the reader will feel 
much edified at the recital of this new revelation of medical 
science ; but we m ist remember that this outrageous opera- 
tion is described in a dingy manuscript of very ancient 
date. But what shall we say when, in the year of grace 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 165 

1850, in the most civilised part of Europe, viz., in the city 
of Weimar, in Germany, there was a work pubHshed which 
surpasses in its absurdities all the oriental manuscripts 
with which we are acquainted. The book in question was 
probably written for the mere purpose of making money, and 
bears as its title, "Tne Wonders of Sympathy and Magne- 
tism, &c,, by Gerstenbergk." 

In India, where the palm, cocos nud/era, grows, the 
bakers use the juice of it, which is called toddy, to leaven 
the dough. At Lahore, where toddy catmot be procured, 
they employ in place of it a mixture of different spices \ 
and, as the ladies at Lahore would probably like to know 
what spices they are daily eating in their bread and pas- 
try, I therefore take the liberty of giving them the recipe 
of my Hindostanee baker. It is true the mixture is com- 
posed only of innocent drugs, which are taken in such 
minute quantities that they can never injure health, and 
that most of them evaporate during baking. The recipe 
runs thus:— Musk, nutmegs, cloves, mace, cinnamon, saf- 
fron, cardamum seeds ( lesser ), ginger, fennel seeds, root of 
the betel plant, bind-weed ( convolvulus argent.\ mild in- 
derjuo seeds, shell of the cuttlefish, sugar of bamboo, gum- 
tragacanth, mastic, and liquorice-root ; of each, one scruple. 
Some people take also the kernel of the cotton-seed, or the 
flowers of euryale ferox ( a water plant). These different 
materials are pounded and mixed together, and kept in a 
small box. When required for use, a small portion is 
mixed with pollard, or wheaten flour, and made into a paste 
with sour milk, in the proportion of one scruple of spices 
to three ounces of the meal. The paste is then enclosed in 
a cloth, and in summer the leaven is ready for use on the 
next day, but in winter not till the third day. To this they 
add three pounds of flour, and, with water, in which a 
little salt is dissolved, make it into a hard dough, which 
they knead on a board for half an hour, and then put 
some sugar into it. Instead of the latter, I used some' sweet 
potatoes ( convolvulus batatas ), when they were in season, 
boiling, peeling, crushing, and mixing them with the dough. 



l66 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

These potatoes communicate to the bread an excellent 
flavour, and keep it for a longer time soft and elastic. The 
bread is made in loaves of about the third of a pound in 
weight, and is put to leaven on the leaves of butea frondosa, 
and afterwards baked. How strange a mixture to replace 
the toddy, and the office of which is performed in our own 
country by simple yeast. 

In Ainsli's Materia Indica, we read : — " Toddy is a sweet, 
aperient, most delicious drink. Taken fresh from the tree, 
early in the morning, before the sun is up, it is certainly 
a luscious and most pleasant beverage, cooling, refreshing, 
and nourishing ; it is besides employed for making the best 
kind of Indian arrack, and yields a great deal of sugar, 
Europeans, especially delicate females, in India, who are 
apt to suffer much from constipation, find a cupful of this 
toddy, drank every morning at fi/e o'clock, one of the sim- 
plest and best remedies they can employ." 

It may, perhaps, be of some interest to my readers to 
cite here a passage from a scientific work, unknown to the 
greater part of the public, which may serve as a comment 
on the above subject. This passage is taken from Smith's 
Encyclopoedia^NoX. Ill,, p. 332 : — "There is no food which may 
not be made a medicine in one form or another. Water, 
bread crumbs, eggs, gelatine, and osmazome (brown soup), are 
thus used. And we find, also, that food, taken improperly or 
immoderately, may become poisonous ; for instance, flour and 
sugar, to persons affected with diabetes ; bread and potatoes, 
in scrofula ; meat, in cases of fever, he., &c. Again, as civili- 
sation has progressed, several medicaments and poisons have 
been discovered to be valuable for habitual use as dietetics, 
spices, stimulants, or cosmetics. In fact, there is scarcely 
any class of medicines which does not afford some aid to our 
culinary operations, even resins, acrid poisons, and narcotics 
not excepted ( asafoetida, Peruvian balsam, capsicum, saffron, 
cherry-laurel, &c.) A certain Tyrolean peasant took arsenic 
as a stomachic, for which it has also for a long period 
been used in veterinary medicines.* We enjoy beverages 

* This circumstance confirms the probability of the story of the 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 167 

containinjj poison or narcotics, as tea, hops, alcohol, and 
carbonic acid. The Russian soldiers drank even nitric acid 
instead of whiskey, Empyreumatic substances, which con- 
tain, according to the opinion of Reichenbach, the strongest 
poisons, as creosote, picamar, and kapnomar, we enjoy in 
roasted and smoked meats, and in empyreumatical beve- 
rages, as coffee, rum, whiskey, &c. The porter and ale 
drinkers swallow, according to parliamentary reports, an 
incredible quantity of coculus menispermum, nux vomica, 
capsicum, ledum palustre, &c. We smoke tobacco ( which 
contains one of the most formidable poisons ), or take 
it for snuff; many even chew it, and the Portuguese 
flavour their melons with it. The natives of the east 
intoxicate themselves with opium and hemp plant. Lead, 
bismuth, and even arsenic ( in rusma ), and other metals, 
are found on the toilettes of the ladies. Prussic acid and 
veratrum are cosmetics. Manganese, copper, and other 
poisonous metals are found in a normal state in the food 
which composes our daily fare ; for example, in the various 
kinds of cereals, &c," 

The before-mentioned tree butea frondosa, yields the well- 
known gum called Bengal Kino, which, with copperas affords 
a good ink ; and it bears yellow-reddish flowers, which are 
recommended for use in hip baths, by the native physicians, 
in urinal disorders. They are used also by the poorer classes 
for dyeing or colouring their clothes on the Holy (carnival) 
and Besanti ( yellow feast ), The light powders called altah, 
which they throw over each other, during the Holy, and 
which are of variegated colours, are prepared from rice and 
water-nuts ( trapa bispinosa ) ; the yellow one is tinted with 
the same colouring substance. The water too, which they 
throw on each other during the Holy, is coloured with the 
same flower, because of its fugitive nature. The dried leaves 
of the above tree are also in requisition among the natives for 
a variety of purposes, and are sold at the bazaar at Lahore 

Affghan physician, whom I mentioned as habitually using arsenic; and, it 
will be recollected, that he was also a horse-dealer, and therefore likely 
to be acquainted with its use in veterinary medicine. 



j6S THIRTY-FIVE VEARS IN THE EAST. 

in bundles. The grocers wrap their spices and other articles 
in these leaves instead of paper, and the confectioners and 
curd sellers do the same ; the latter knit two or three of the 
leaves together, either with wooden pins or with thorns, so 
that they have the shape of a cup, in which they exhibit the 
curds for sale j and the Hindoo mountaineers, who are not 
permitted to use glass or china, employ them as plates in 
which they serve their food. The rajahs Dhyan Sing, 
Soochet Sing and Heera Sing were accustomed to take their 
repasts from similar cups and dishes, sitting with their re- 
tinue on white cloths, spread upon the ground. Every guest 
has one or more of these cups placed before him, and they 
only employ their fingers in eating, as forks, knives or 
spoons are not used by the native inhabitants. The Maha- 
rajah Gholab Sing, however, does not dine in company, but 
invariably takes his meals alone, in the kitchen where the 
dishes are prepared, having previously passed an hour or 
two in performing his ablutions, and repeating his poojah 
C prayers ). It is a common custom in India for every 
Hindoo to prepare his own dinner. He makes a circle, 
washing the hearth within it, beyond which no person, even 
of his own caste, is allowed to pass ; and if any stranger, 
ignorant of the custom, should place his foot beyond this 
sacred circle, the dish he has been preparing is considered 
as polluted, and is thrown away untouched, no matter how 
expensive the ingredients may have been. There are a large 
number of Hindoo castes, and much diversity prevails in 
their habits and customs. In some of these, a person will 
not eat of a dish prepared even by his own brother ; and 
should he be dangerously ill, would rather confine his diet 
to dried fruits than take any food which another person had 
touched. This extreme peculiarity, however, attaches only 
to a few of the Hindoo castes, as by far the larger number 
resemble in this respect the Sikhs ( reformed Hindoos ), 
who do not object to eat of any dish which has been pre- 
pared by a Brahmin. One of my orderlies, i e., attendant 
of my house, who was a Brahmin, had eaten of a cake which 
had been bought at the bazaar^ but which by accident had 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 169 

been touched by one of his companions who was a Mussel- 
man, and in consequence, he was looked upon by those of 
his caste as being polluted. In order to purify himself, he 
was, by way of penitence, obliged to give a splendid dinner 
to the Brahmins of the neighbourhood, the cost of which 
absorbed about a month's wages : and to eat a suEfared 
paste compounded of milk, butter, urine, and excrement, 
the four being derived from the sacred animal of the 
Brahmins ; which, although he knew its disgusting com- 
position, he devoured with great devotional avidity, and 
which completely effected his restoration to purity in the 
eyes of his fellow Brahmins. 

In the hot season, ginger beer is a great favourite in 
India as a beverage, especially v;hen cooled by immersion 
in a freezing mixture of ice and saltpetre. It is prepared 
much in the s^me manner as in this country. Milk-punch 
and grog are also extensively used, as well as cooled soda- 
water ( with a small quantity of wine ), lemonade, orgeat, 
&c. These beverages, however, are used mostly by Europe- 
ans ; the natives prepare a variety of cooling drinks from 
almonds, the seeds of melons, pumpkins, cucumbers, &c. ; 
adding to them arkh-e-goolab, arkh-e-keora and hedemusk^ 
i. e,^ the distilled waters of roses, sweet scented pandan, 
and the flowers of the Egyptian willow. They use also 
a syrup made from the berries of the gtewia asiatica \ a 
vinegar syrup flavoured with mint ; buttermilk ; milk- 
and-water \ and curdled milk with salt and water ; those 
who can afford to incur the expense of artificially cool- 
ing these beverages, use, when ice connot be obtained, a 
mixture of water and saltpetre, agitating in it the vessel 
containing the liquid to be cooled. It is not always, how- 
ever, that cold drinks are the most effective for quenching 
the violent thirst experienced in the hot season ; on the 
contrary, my own experience teaches me that the more 
of these which are taken, the more the thirst increases ; 
whilst a cup of warm tea or coffee with milk, produces a 
contrary result, and should therefore be used in preference 
to cold beverages in such cases. 



170 THIRTY FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

Cold baths are much used in India, both by Europeans 
and natives ; but especially by the latter • in fact, it is 
almost impossible to over-estimate the benefits arising 
from them. I have myself experienced the restoring in- 
fluence of cold-bathing, and from the commencement of 
April till the end of August, I refreshed myself with at 
least two cold douche-baths daily ; and sometimes took one 
even during those intensely hot nights, which so often 
deprive the European of sleep. The wealthy can afford to 
employ servants day and night in fanning and otherwise 
administering to their comfort in these hot climates, but 
the poorer classes must perform the ventilating or cooling 
processes for themselves as they can. But besides the 
inconveniences arising from the heat of an Indian summer, 
there are other annoyances to be experienced or prevent- 
ed ; such as the prickly heat ( as it is called ), the attacks 
of mosquitoes, and those troublesome dust-storms which 
occur regularly in the Punjab about the middle of June. 
These dust- storms are sometimes so thick that, in broad 
daylight, they will occasionally, for a few minutes, produce 
as great a darkness as that of night. Another disagreeable 
Indian visitor is the simoom ( hot winds ), which ordinarily 
continue for six weeks, during which the inhabitants of 
India, native and European, are compelled to pass their 
time during the day in cellars beneath the ground, or else 
they must cover every aperture to their dwellings with 
tattis ( mats made from the root of the andropogon muriu' 
ileum ), which they keep constantly sprinkled with water. 
The douche-baths I used were produced by causing a goat- 
skin to be filled with fresh well-water, and poured over my 
head. Besides the cleanliness and cooling effect which 
these baths afford, they exercise a beneficial influence on 
the skin and nervous system, as also on the lungs, stomach, 
kidneys, and even on the remotest parts of the body, by 
stimulating their action. It is necessary, however, to be 
careful in the use of the cold bath, and to avoid taking one 
when the body is in a perspiration, which in India, I need 
scarcely say, is often the case. The same rule also holds 



THIRTV-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. I^I 

jTood as regards warm bathing; in winter ; and it is liiglily 
danf^erous to leave the bath too suddenly, and expose the 
body to the influence of the cold air. The natives, both 
Moslenfis and Hindoos— male or female — whether winter or 
summer — hot or cold — whether in the Ravee or the Gancjes — 
by drenching themselves at the wells, or washing in their own 
homes — are, figuratively speaking, always in the water. 
Their simple and favorite beverage is — not beer, wine or 
brandy, but sherbet, i.e., water sweetened with raw sugar, 
and therefore they generally enjoy good health. They make 
great use also of gymnastic exercises, in which tshapi and 
mtdi are special favorites when they are fatigued, and assist 
materially in promoting the circulation ; the former may be 
described as pinching, and the latter is a process of strik- 
ing with both fists on the body. The natives of India 
have also a peculiar Way of rinsing the mouth and cleansing 
the teeth, which is generally done when they perform their 
religious exercises, of which ablution is an essential part. 
They use for this purpose the twigs or branches of vari- 
ous trees and shrubs ; but as each nation uses a different 
kind of twig, &c., it would occupy too much space to de- 
tail the numerous plants employed ; it is sufficient to observe, 
that they are generally of an astringent nature, and whilst 
cleansing and strengthening the gums, have a beneficial effect 
on the stomach also. 

The Sikhs generally employ an hour or two In the opera- 
tions of the toilet ; and before ablution they rub their hair 
( which in most cases is long and black ) with curds. When 
the hair has become silvered by age, they dare not dye it, 
being strictly forbidden by their religious tenets. The 
Musselmen, however, are very fond of dyeing the hair, and 
for that purpose make use of a great variety of compositions 
containing oxide of iron, myrobolans, Lawsonia inennis^ 
Indio^ofera Anil, Bic. They also darken the eyelashes with 
black sulphurets of lead or antimony. 

The following are the recipes for two of the hair dyes 
which are principally in request:— Of Lawsonia inermis 
and Indigofera Anil, take each two parts, and of dried myrtlQ 
26 



172 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EASt. 

leaves and emblic myrobolans, each one part ; these are made 
into powder and mixed with water to the consistency of 
a soft poultice, which is applied to the hair. It is stated 
that this composition stimulates the growth of the hair, 
blackens that which is grey, and presents its splitting. The 
second recipe is one which I have myself used in earlier years, 
in India and in Persia, for colouring my beard ; and is 
generally recognised by the orientals ( who are extremely 
fond of possessing fine long black hair ), as the best pre- 
paration for the purpose. The powdered Lawsonia inermis 
is made by water into a soft pap, and applied in that 
state to the hair, taking care that all the hair is completely 
overspread to the roots. It is then covered, and fastened 
up with leaves, or by a piece of waxcloth or oilskin, and hav- 
ing been suffered to remain for from half-an-hour to an 
hour, the preparation is then washed off. The effect of this 
is to dye the hair a bright red colour ; which colour, by 
the next process, is converted into a beautiful black. The 
second application is a paste prepared with water from the 
powder of the indigo plant which I have before mentioned ; 
it is used in a similar manner to the first, but must be 
allowed to remain on the hair for three hours ; being then 
washed off, the operation of dying is completed, and the 
hair is rubbed with oil or pomatum, to give it lustre and 
suppleness. The only inconvenience of the processes I have 
described, which are so cheap in the east, is that they re- 
quire to be repeated about once a week, for, as the hair 
grows from the roots, it would otherwise, after a few days,, 
show at that part the natural colour of the hair, and con- 
sequently present a very unsightly appearance. These opera- 
tions are generally performed at noon, a time when 
every one is at home, either for rest or indoor occupa- 
tion. 

A weak solution of nitrate of silver is sometimes used 
in Europe for dying the hair, but if this be used after the 
preparations which I have just described, instead of darken- 
ing, it will convert the colour into a grey like that of 
ashes ;— this fact I learaed from the Nabob, Jubber Khaa, 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 173 

at Cabul, who, having admired the colour of my beard^ 
and ascertained it to be produced by nitrate of silver, forth- 
with applied it to his own hair, which had been previously 
dyed with the compositions I have described. The result 
was as indicated, and the nabob became for some time the 
laughing stock of the community. 

Besides the solution of nitrate of silver, they use in Europe 
a compound powder of litharge, soap, chalk, starch, and a 
little sulphuric acid, &c. This is also well-known in the 
east, but is not in esteem, inasmuch as it is productive of 
noxious effects as regards health, and also renders the hair 
stiff and rough. 

With regard to this digression on medical and domestic 
matters, I may, before I return to my narrative, mention to 
my readers, that at the end of this volume they will find a 
short rhythmical essay by the well-known Dr. Triller 
( which I have translated from the German ), on the means 
of ensuring a merry old age, and although it does not evince 
much poetical fervor, is nervertheless valuable for the advice 
it contains. 

The maharajah Sheer Sing, was, in his private character,, 
extremely polite and amiable ; he had an intense desire for 
knowledge, and devoted great attention to European skill, 
industry and learning. In these matters, he could, of 
course, only acquire information from Europeans, and 
would enter freely into conversation with them, without the 
slightest observance of the etiquette which his position 
might have commanded. On one occasion, in the course of 
our conference, he inquired whether I had any relations in 
Europe ; and learning that I had a younger brother at 
Kronstadt, who had formerly been in the military service; 
but was at that time exercising the profession of a watch- 
maker, the maharajah inquired whether he could repair 
machinery of that description which was out of order ; and,, 
on my replying in the affirmative, he askad whether 1 
thought my brother would make up his mind to leave 
Kronstadt and come to Lahore, if he should send for him.. 
His reason for asking this was, that ( being a patron of the: 



174 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, 

fine arts ) he had In his possession a larcre number of" 
English musical boxes, clocks, watches, and other similar 
machines, many of which were damaged or broken. I 
assured him I had no doubt my brother would willingly 
respond to his invitation, and that I would myself provide 
for his family, which would remain in Europe. The maha- 
rajah at once requested me to send for my brother, and to 
take the necessary steps for his voyage, &c., and several 
times subsequently made many Inquiries as to whether I 
had sent, and if he would come, whether he was on his way, 
and whether he might soon expect to see him. The urgency 
of these reiterated requests was sucb, that I strongly soli- 
cited my brother to accede to the maharajah's desire ; and 
he accordingly set out on his journey from Kronstadt to 
Lahore. Arrived at the isthmus of Suez, he heard, to his 
consternation, of the murder of the maharajah and his 
wuzeer, and of the other horrid massacres in the capital, 
which I have before described. He continued his journey, 
however, and arrived at Ferozepore, on the boundary of the 
Punjab, in the beginning of February, 1814 ; which, as the 
reader may recollect, was the epoch when Heera Sing was 
the powerful wuzeer of the young maharajah Dulleep Sing, 
and the time when all Europeans were dismissed from the 
service of the Sikhs and sent from the country. I was my- 
self at that time severely 111 ; and the minister, having heard 
that no hope of my recovery was entertained, permitted 
my brother to pass the frontier and visit me at Lahore ; 
thus verifying the proverb, that "out of evil, good cometh." 
On the very day on which my brother arrived at Lahore, 
my recovery commenced ; but whether this was due to the 
pleasure I derived from his arrival, or a new remedy 1 had 
employed on that day, I am unable to say ; both clauses, 
possibly, assisted In producing that result. My illness had 
probably been for some time slumbering In the system, for 
I had previously been using, as a beverage, a wine made 
from Cabul raisins and sugar, which had not been properly 
fermented ; and this may very likely have laid the founda- 
tion of the disease I ara about to describe. After havips 



TIIIRTV-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 175 

exposed my sight to the powerful rays of an Indian sun 
for some hours, the stomach being empty, one of my eyes 
became very much inflamed. Not having properly attended 
to this circumstance, and, as was necessary, immediately 
applied leeches or bleeding, I found myself on the following 
morning totally blind ; an Ainauyosis being formed, so that 
I was unable to seek for any of my medicines. No European 
physician being at Lahore, I was obliged to have recourse 
to the native drugs, and consult with native doctors. 
Leeches, blisters, coliyriums, &c., later employed, seemed of 
no avail, and for a whole fortnight I was unable to sleep 
night or day, and was without food of any kind ; for on my 
attempting to take the slightest nourishment, even pure 
water, the stomach rejected it again immediately ; and 
from the circumstance of an acrid fluid sometimes rising to 
my mouth, and an unnatural feeling of heaviness in the 
stomach, I was led to conclude that there was an ul- 
ceration there. Erratic swellings in the joints, accom- 
panied by dysentery, followed ; and I was so weakened, 
that on the morning of the day when my brother arrived, 
I was in a piteous state of blindness and exhaustion. On 
that day I commenced using that simple remedy which 
contributed to my restoration from the very dangerous 
illness at Kheirpore, on the Indus ( as the reader may 
remember ), viz., masticating some of those large raisins, 
called there monaka, which I found to act as a balm to the 
stomach, or rather, perhaps, to the ulceration there. From 
that moment I grew visibly better, my appetite and strength 
gradually increased, and I was at length restored to health. 

As regards my brother, it soon became evident, that in 
the altered state of political affairs in the Punjab, there 
could be no probability of his obtaining any engagement 
which would justify him in remaining ; he therefore returned 
again to Europe, accompanied by Colonel Steinbach. 

As an instance of the fanaticism of the Nahungs ( the 
robber-pack I have before mentioned ), I may relate an 
occurrence which took place at Umritsir, in which a German 
friend of mine, Herr August Schofft, was near losing his 



1^6 TlilRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

life by their fury. This gentleman is an artist of some 
celebrity ( at this time in St. Petersburg ), and he, accom- 
panied by his lady, visited the East Indian Presidencies 
shortly before my severe illness ; and having met with great 
success in consequence of his skill in oil painting, he 
came to visit me at Lahore. At this time the court 
happened to be at Umritsir, and I received an order from 
Sheer Sing to present myself at that place with my guest. 
On our arrival, it happened that one of the principal Sikh 
priests, named Bail Goormuck Sing, was present, and the 
maharajah desired Herr Schofft to furnish him with a speci- 
men of his abilities, by sketching a portrait of the Baii ; 
which he accordingly did, in pencil, and the likeness was, 
a striking one. The result was, that the maharajah and 
several of the principal persons of the court sat to him for 
their portraits, and Herr Schofft accordingly met with great 
respect and consideration, 

I may mention here, that Herr Schofft had kept copies 
of these portraits, and that on his return to Europe he 
painted, from these and other sketches which he had taken, 
a large picture of the Durbar of Lahore, which is consider- 
ed to be his masterpiece, and which was purchased 
from him by Louis Phillipe, and is still, I believe, at 
Paris. 

In the centre of the city of Umritsir is a gigantic re- 
servoir of water, from the midst of which rises a magnificent 
temple, where the Gtunth ( the holy book of the Sikhs ) 
is read day and night. Around this sheet of water are the 
houses of the maharajah, th.e ministers, sirdars, and other 
wealthy inhabitants. The square itself is called Dmhar 
Saheb. At the time of Runjeet Sing and Sheer Sing, the 
scene which presented itself at this temple, when the court 
was at Umritsir, was of the most brilliant description, and 
at certain periods all the notabilities of the Punjab were 
to be seen collected together in all the splendour of or- 
iental pageantry. During our stay at Umritsir it happened 
that the inhabitants gave an invitation to the court to visit 
the sacred temple at night time, when it was gorgeously 



tHlRTY-FIVfe YEARS IN THE EAST. I77 

illuminated , and Sheer Sing honoured me with his com- 
mands that we should accompany him, sending us a richly 
caparisoned elephant for our accommodation. Sheer Sing 
inquired of my friend, Ilerr Schofft, if he could take for 
him a drawing of that brilliant scene. He answered in the 
affirmative, but proposed to the maharajah that it would 
be better if the scene was sketched under the effect of 
daylight instead of the imperfect one of the illumination. 
He was accordingly ordered to adopt that suggestion. On 
the following morning we went to the house of the Baii 
Goormuck Sing, who had promised, on the previous evening, 
to send a servant to point out to us the most elevated terrace 
in the square ( which was in the mansion of Runjeet Sing ), 
from which Herr Schofft could get a view of the temple 
and the surrounding buildings ; on this place he prepared 
his atelier. He occupied the whole of the day in sketching 
the scene, and on the following day he also went there, but 
alone, to continue his work. About noon, having that 
morning received some newspapers from my native place, 
Kronstadt, I went to him, and he desired me to read to 
him the news whilst he was painting. About an hour be- 
fore sunset, his work was nearly finished, and as the court 
had already departed for Lahore, whither we wished also 
to proceed immediately, he requested me to go to our 
quarters and to procure some boxes in which he could en- 
close his paintings. Our quarters were outside the city, in 
a garden formerly belonging to the prince No-Nehal Sing. 
When I reached home I immediately forwarded to him a 
horse and servants, as he had told me he should finish his 
painting within an hour after I had left him. 

Herr Schofft was a great smoker, and attracted attention 
in Umritsir from his scarcely ever being seen abroad with- 
out having a cigar in his mouth. Now smoking is con- 
sidered by the Nahungs and the Sikhs as sinful, or rather 
criminal ; more especially in or near such a holy place 
as their chief sanctuary ; Herr Schofft was aware of this, 
and therefore studiously avoided smoking whilst engaged 
in taking this sketch, It happened however, that, as is 



1 78 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST: 

customary with painters, he now and then in the course of 
the work placed one of his pencils in his mouth, in order 
to keep it separate from those in the left hand, whilst using 
another with the right. This was observed by those who 
stood watching his operations from beneath the terrace, and 
they imagined, in consequence, that he was smoking. The 
rumour first spread about in whispers one to another, and 
as the impression became confirmed, a general indignation 
manifested itself ; and loud exclamations were soon heard, 
that the feringhee ( frank ) was committing sacrilege by 
smoking in their sacred place. The people speedily in- 
creased in numbers, and a clamorous mob soon surrounded 
the palace. The artist was at first unconscious of the cause 
of the gathering, but he soon became aware by their shouts 
and threats, that he was in some way the object of their 
fury, and that he was consequently in a dangerous position. 
He had no sooner, however, made up his mind that his best 
policy would be to effect his escape, if possible, unperceiv- 
ed ; when some of the ringleaders of the mob, who had 
made their way through the palace, rushed upon the terrace, 
and attempted to seize him. Being a strong and vigorous 
man, he succeeded in wrenching himself from their grasp, 
and made his way to the staircase, which to his dismay he 
found crowded by the mob, who were making their way 
up. Knowing that his only chance lay in breaking through 
them as quickly as possible, he struck out right and left, 
and having the advantage of being always uppermost of 
those who attempted to stay his progress, he succeeded 
in reaching the bottom with some few bruises, Plere, how- 
ever, the affair presented a still more formidable aspect ; 
fjr no sooner had he reached the foot of the staircase, 
then he was seized by the collar and other parfs of his 
coat by half-a-dozen of the mob, and saw at a little 
distance the glittering of several of their weapons. He 
gave himself up for lost, and in the energy of despair threw 
open his coat, and taking advantage of a slight confusion at 
the moment ( caused by a struggle to get possession of the 
gold watch which he had held in his hand, and had at the 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 179 

same instant relinquished to them ), he slipped from the 
coat, which was held on all sides, and pushing away those in 
front of him, he succeeded in reaching the street ; here his 
nether garments fell, in some unaccountable manner, about 
'his feet, and he stumbled and fell into a miry puddle which 
was immediately before him : he instantly sprang to his 
feet, and rushed to the entrance of a dark stable close ad- 
jacent. The mob concluded they had now secured their prey, 
but they were mistaken ; for Schofft had, fortunately, whilst 
passing this stable on a previous occasion in my company, 
entered it, and noticed its back entrance, which led into the 
bazaar ; through this back door he then gained the bazaar, 
and from thence ( the mob all the way at his heels ), reach- 
ed the house of his protector, Baii Goormukh Sing; 
The door was immediately shut, and Schofft was saved. 

He there met with a kind reception, and on cleansing 
himself from the mire and blood with which he was cover- 
ed, it was found that he had not only received several 
contusions on the bead from the iron knobs on the shields 
of the Nahungs, with which they had struck at him ; but 
also a sword wound on the back, by which his braces had 
been cut through, which at once explained to him the cause 
of his fall into the mire at so critical a moment. The mob 
not evincing any inclination to disperse, the police interfered, 
and compelled them to retire. 

During all this time I was at home, expecting his 
arrival every moment ; and at length, when it was quite 
dark, some of the persons whom I had sent with the horse, 
came back to me with the news of the riot, and informed 
me that he was in the hands of the mob. This filled me 
with consternation, and I immediately sent to the comman- 
der of the fortress ( a friend of mine ), soliciting him to 
assist and endeavour to save the unfortunate painter. With 
great promptitude, he despatched a whole company of re- 
gular troops to the city, and on their way they met Schofft 
on his road home ; he having been disguised in an oriental 
costume, and sent on horseback accompanied by an escort 
of police. My first care was to dress his wounds; and 
27 



l80 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

early on the following morning we left Qmritsir for Lahore. 
1 may add that the watch, and the plate, &c., which I had sent 
with his luncheon, were of course lost ; but the painting was 
subsequently recovered. 

It was a fortunate circumstance for me that the ranee, 
during the war with the English on the Sutlej, in con- 
sequence of the many abortions she had experienced, was 
affected with ophthalmia, and had not consented to the de- 
mands of the Commander-in-Chief, Teja Sing, who was also 
suffering from fever ( or from fright ), and wished my at- 
tendance in the camp. I had, therefore, the advantage of 
remaining in the city ( avoiding the inconvenience of com- 
promising myself with the English, by becoming an attache 
of the hostile Sikh camp, which subsequently caused the 
dismissal of Colonels Mouton and Hurbon ), and also of 
becoming personally acquainted with the ranee, whose 
portrait I have presented to my readers. 

The result of the war on the Sutlej, I have already men- 
tioned ; and, as my office at Lahore was almost annihilated 
on the annexation of the Punjab by the English, I made up 
my mind to return to Europe ; but the season not being 
favorable for the homeward voyage, I determined to employ 
my leisure in visiting the valley of Cashmere, which is rich 
in historical, physical, and industrial interest, hoping not 
only to obtain a collection of the plants of that country, 
and thus enrich botanical science ; but also, at the same 
time, by excursions into the surrounding mountains, to im- 
prove my health, which had been sensibly impaired by the 
duties and unceasing exertions of the past two years. 

Having obtained the necessary permission from the 
English government at Lahore, and also from the maharajah 
of Cashmere, Gholab Sing, I departed from Lahore, and 
reached the valley of Cashmere in three weeks, without 
the occurrence of any incident v/orth noting. Arrived 
there, I entered into communication with the maharajah, 
and he proposed that I should enter his service. This, 
however, I declined, more especially as it would interfere 
with my proposed journey to Europe ; but I promised him 



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THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. iSl 

that I would hasten my return to India, and pass a few 
years in his country, not only in cultivating ground on my 
own private account, but also according to his desire, in 
attending to his personal service. The maharajah was 
anxious to know what sort of farming I intended to adopt 
in Cashmere, when I informed him that I had observed 
that, notwithstanding the great consumption of tea and 
sugar in his dominions, the cultivation of them had never 
been attempted, and that thev were consequently imported 
from foreign countries. The sugar used in Cashmere 
is imported from India, and is conveyed with much diffi- 
culty over steep mountains through almost impracti- 
cable passes, the journey occupying three weeks ; and the 
tea is brought from Thibet, in the shape of cakes, and is 
very much inferior to that which is produced in India. I 
explained to the maharajah, to his great astonishment, that 
the soil of Cashmere was favourable to the production of 
both these articles ; and also that the sugarcane ( which 
will not grow there ) was not essential for the production of 
sugar, as it could be prepared of eq'ial quality from a kind 
of beet-root, for the cultivation of which that soil was 
eminently adapted ; and informed him that I should there- 
fore solicit permission to establish a sugar manufactory, 
both land and labour there being exceedingly cheap. The 
maharajah agreed entirely with my plan, and gave me an 
order for the purpose of enabling me to carry it out, which 
will be found among the plates to this volume. God will- 
ing, I shall endeavour to carry that intention into effect. 

As I have acquainted my readers, my hopes were to re- 
establish my health in these hilly countries ; but I had 
reckoned without my host ; for the greater part of my do- 
mestics being natives of Cashmere, and aware of my 
activity and zeal in assisting the suffering part of mankind, 
they did not fail to trumpet my medical success at Lahore 
to their countrymen, who flocked to my abode with patients 
from morning till night. For two months, there were not 
less than a hundred persons daily, to solicit my assistance : 
I accorded it to them gratuitously ; and from their incessant 



1 83 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

attendance, I was not only compelled to expend the 
whole of the day in distributing medicaments, which were 
administered in the form of lozenges, but was also oblige'^ 
to devote my evenings to the preparation of those which 
were to be used on the day following. In fact, it frequent- 
ly happened that whole families came from some of the 
more distant villages, and bringing their provision with 
them, they encamped in my garden, and remained there 
for two or three days, uutil I was able to furnish them 
with the requisite medicines and advice, 

I was, however, to a great exten*:, repaid for the labour 
to which I was thus subjected, by being able to make 
many experiments, and thus practically convince myself of 
the medicinal efficacy of the plants and drugs of Cashmere, 
which were those I principally tried there. I had also the 
opportunity of introdiscing operations which had been 
hitherto unknown in that country ; as for instance, tapping 
in a case of dropsy, which I performed in the presence of 
the maharajah and several others, who were completely 
amazed at the quantity of liquid drawn from the patient. 

At the time I am now writing, the news has just arriv- 
ed from India, that the maharajah Gholab Sing is himself 
suffering from dropsy ; and had the arrangements which I 
had made respecting this work permitted, I should certain- 
ly have returned to India before this, and have probably been 
able to have rendered him some assistance. I have, however,, 
forwarded to him (if not too late) some medical advice, 
and also instructions for the preparation of medicines which 
can be procured on the spot, and administered by his own 
people ; for the Hindoos, as I have before mentioned, will 
not take anything which has been prepared or even touch- 
ed by a stranger. 

At the period when I was at Cashmere, the maharajah 
had several English visitors, whom he treated with the 
greatest hospitality. Some of them had come from 
Simla via Thibet. At that time, and previously, it was the 
custom for every European, of whatever nation he might be, 
who visited the valley of Cashmere, to be received as a 



TIIIRTV-FITE YEARS IN THE EAST. iSj 

jTuest, and entertained as such, from the instant of his en- 
teringf the country to the moment of his departure; even 
the hill-porters who carried the baggage ( for it is impossible 
to employ animals heavily laden, on account of the badness 
of the roads in that hilly country ) were by the officials of 
the maharajah placed at the disposal of the visitors. In a 
conversation, however, which I had with the maharajah, he 
complained that many of the servants of the European vis- 
itors had abused the hospitality displayed towards them, for 
they had frequently taken with them very large quantities of 
saffron, and other products of the country, much beyond 
■what they could really use during their sojourn. This cir- 
cumstance, I believe, has led to an alteration in the custom. 

The most eminent of the visitors at that time, were 
Lord Gifford, brother-in-law of the Governor-General of In- 
dia, and the unfortunate Colonel King, who afterwards 
( in consequence of imagining that imputations were thrown 
upon his courage and ability ) committed suicide. We some- 
times dined together at the maharajah's ; and it may, per- 
haps, appear very ridiculous to those who are unacquaint- 
ed with oriental customs, to be informed, that on these 
occasioTs, we were obliged to send our own cooks, our own 
wines, and our own plate, and other culinary, or, gastronomic 
apparatus. The maharajah would make his appearance 
during dinner, but, of course, would never partake of our 
repast ; and, to show us particular attention, he ordered 
preserves, fruit, ice, and sweetmeats, to be sent to us from 
his own kitchen. Besides this kind of hospitality, he would 
frequently minister to our entertainment in other ways, as 
by exhibitions of fireworks, illuminations on the river, music, 
dancing-girls ( bayaderes ), &c. 

The kings of France professed to cure the king's-evil, 
by laying the hand upon the patient ; and the kings of 
England to cure epilepsy, by blowing thrice upon the per- 
son affected with that disease — the maharajh emulates their 
example, by professing to cure all cases of paralysis, although 
he adopts a more substantial and effective method of opera- 
tion. He administers, for this purpose, a majoon (electuary) 



l84 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

the ingredients of which, as he informed me, are cinnabar, 
anacardiiim orientale, and nux vomica, with thirty-five 
spices. It is prepared as follows — The cinnabar is boiled in 
butter, and the nux vomica, aoacardium, and spices, are 
then added ; these ingredients are then ground, or, rubbed 
together, with a sufficient quantity of honey, in order to 
form an electuary, a process which occupies three days. 
The dose ( twice a day ) is from five to ten grains. The 
electuarium nucis vomicse of Timur Shah, which the Hakims 
still consider a valuable remedy, is a similar compound, 
the preparation of which I now give — Any quantity of nux 
vomica is macerated or immersed in warm milk, the milk 
being poured off, and fresh milk substituted every day, for 
seven consecutive days ', on the eighth day the nux vomica 
is suspended by inclosing it in a linen cloth, in a stewpan 
filled with new milk, and boiled ; the nuts are then peeled 
and split, and the internal germ removed and thrown away 
(the latter being considered poisonous ) they are then wash- 
ed, dried, and rasped to powder, which is afterwards boiled in 
honey. The following spices, mixed with twice their weight 
of honey, are then added to complete the electuary, viz. — 
white, black, and long peppers, cinnamon, nutmeg, betel-nut^ 
mastic, English galangale, Emblic myrobalon, India spik- 
enard, cardamoms, cumin seeds, fennel seeds, small fennel- 
flower seeds, saffron, ginger, cloves, aloes wood, guiacuna 
wood, sandal wood, and Xylobalsam. The dose of this medi- 
cine is half a drachm to one drachm ; and it is recommend- 
ed as an anodyne, hypnotic, and aphrodisise ; also, as be- 
ing valuable in removing palsy, curing gout, stopping 
catarrh, strengthening the stomach, &c. 

I could introduce a great variety of anecdotes illustrat- 
ive of the manners, customs, &c., of the inhabitants of Cash- 
mere, and the peculiarities of their country, which have 
never yet been published, did the object of my work permit. 
I may, however, mention a curious species of theft which 
is sometimes perpetrated there. On the lakes in Cashmere 
are large numbers of floating gardens, or, masses of weeds, 
upon which earth is thrown, and they serve as beds for 



THIRTY- FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 1$$ 

cultivating melons, cucumbers, turnips, carrots, cabbages, 
egg-plant-apples, and different other culinary vegetables. If, 
however, the gardener does not keep a watch over this 
moveable property, he may perhaps find, that during the 
night, the garden itself has been cut from its fastenings and 
removed ; and as, in these cases, the thief joins the stolen 
mass to a similar one of his own (thus completely altering 
its shape, postion, &c. ) it is rarely possible to identify the 
garden, or, discover the perpetrator of the robbery. 

During my stay at Cashmere, I did not neglect any 
opportunity of acquiring a knowledge of its botanical 
treasures, or, of collecting such plants as appeared likely 
to be of any service for medicinal purposes ; I thus gathered 
a considerable herbarium vivum : The drawings of those 
which I considered as most valuable in medical botany, may 
be seen in the second volume, and their properties and 
effects ( as far as I was able to discover ) are also detailed 
in the pages of that volume. Besides the Flora Medica 
Cashmereana, there are also descriptions of other plants, 
which I collected in the plains of the Punjab, the virtues of 
which I tested, and now communicate. Many of them are, 
probably, already known to European physicians, but, as I 
have written not for Europe alone, but also for the East, 
I have introduced them, because many of the Indian physi- 
cians are not thoroughly acquainted with them — not even 
with their forms or properties. It would have been easy 
for me to have doubled or tripled the number, had the limits 
of this work permitted. 

Many of my readers may possibly question the utility 
of these descriptions, on the ground, that, even supposing 
the efificacy of the plants to be established, and their utili- 
ty in medicine practically and successfully proved, the know- 
ledge of them cannot be of any service to European phy- 
sicians, as they will not be able to procure supplies. This, 
however, is not the case ; for, although their principal 
use may be in India, the shawl merchants of Cashmere, who 
are in constant communication witti France and England, 
would willingly forward whatever might he required, to 



1 86 THIRTY- FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

any part of India or Europe. On this point, I have only 
to observe, that their transport should not be by the long 
route round the Cape of Good Hope, but by the Red Sea and 
the Mediterranean ; or, if possible, entirely overland ; be- 
cause, unless they are in hermetically-sealed packa«jes, they 
invariably suffer by a sea passage. I may further men- 
tion, that my catalogue of Cashmerean plants is not by any 
means complete, and that, should Heaven permit me to 
fulfil my intention, of again visiting that country for a 
couple of years, and then of returning to Europe, I shall 
publish a Supplement to this work, in order to supply the 
deficiencies, and therein state any occurrences of interest 
which ray happen. 

Having passed the months of July and August in Cash- 
mere, I left that beautiful country, on my way to Europe, in 
the month of September, taking with me a quantity of 
Cashmerean produce. After calling at Lahore, where I stayed 
till the end of October, I passed the Sutlej, and went, via 
Ferozepore, Loodiana, Umballa, Saharunpore, and Rajpore, 
again to the hills, viz., to Mussoorie, in order to visit my 
two daughters, whom I had placed at an educational institu- 
tion there, which is under the direction of some French 
ladies. I spent three days at that place, and then continued 
my journey, passing from Meerut to Goormuckteesur, on 
the Ganges ; where I had previously engaged a small vessel 
to convey me to Calcutta. The voyage down the Ganges was 
an exceedingly pleasant one, in many respects, and lasted two 
months. Among the incidents which excited my attention 
on the river, the relation of which may interest the reader, 
was that, as we approached Bengal, I observed, on both banks 
of the Ganges, a gradually increasing number of cane-mats, 
coverlets, drinking vessels, &c., and also many sick persons 
lying upon mats, &c. On inquiring the cause, I found that it 
was the custom of the country, among the poorer classes, that 
when a patient was supposed to be past all hope of recovery, 
his relations conveyed him to the banks of the Ganges, so 
that he might die in the vicinity of the sacred river. The 
relations or friends of the patieuis, visit the spot, to 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. ig; 

ascertain whether they are still living ; when death ensues, 
they purchase a sufficiency of wood to make a funeral-pile, 
and commit the body to the flam es ; when their means do 
not afford the expense of doing this, they merely burn a por- 
tion of the face, and then push the body into the sacred river. 
When a patient, thus situated, happens to recover, he 
considers that he has, as it were, acquired a new life, and 
thenceforth all his former relations and friends are treated 
as strangers ; he never returns to the dwelling in which he 
had formerly resided, but wanders down the Ganges, until he 
arrives at Santipore, near Calcutta, where he settles himself ; 
and it is a curious fact, that nearly the whole population of 
Santipore is composed of such persons. These people never 
again hold any communication with those who had been 
nearest and dearest to th^^m ; and they contract marriages 
amongst themselves only. This town or colony, the only one, 
perhaps, of its kind in the world, may be called the " Colony 
of Convalescents." The Ganges teems with crocodiles, and 
wild geese are found in great abundance. 

When I arrived at Calcutta, I found that one of the 
finest merchant vessels, called the " Prince of Wales," be- 
longing to Messieurs Green and Compy. was [about to sail 
for England. I made arrangements for my passage home- 
ward, and after a v/eek's stay only in Calcutta, went on 
board. This short stay at the capital of Bengal, prevented 
my observing any of the operations of the celebrated Dr. 
James Esdaile ( now in Scotland ) whose cases of amputa- 
tion, &c,, performed without pain, and without the use of 
chloroform, &c., while the patient was under mesmeric in- 
fluence, were then attracting considerable attention. The 
Lelhi Gazette of India observed—" Though Dr. Esdaile's 
performances are not yet countenanced by the faculty, let us 
hope that he possesses moral courage sufficient to prosecute 
his measures." 

We enjoyed the most delightful weather during the 

voyage ; the only annoyance teing the frequent calms, 

which caused us to be two months in reaching the Cape of 

Good Hope. In the beginning of April we reached Cape 

28 



l88 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

Town, the aspect of which, at the foot of the Table Moun- 
tain, is exceedingly picturesque. The town is constructed 
with much regularity, and the houses are very comfortable 
dwellings, principally of one flat only. Almost every Eu- 
ropean comfort is to be found there ; they have good hotels, 
elegant shops, handsome public buildings, an exchange, a 
theatre, and several others, and the town is well lighted 
with gas ; I was surprised at not being pestered at the Cape 
by beggars, a peculiarity I do not recollect to have met with 
in any other place I visited in my travels. 

On our arrival at the Cape, the harvest season was just 
over, and we were able, on our walks through the town, or 
in country excursions, to refresh ourselves with some of the 
most delicious grapes I ever tasted. To some of my 
readers, it may, at first, appear strange, that the harvest 
season should be over so early in the year as April ; but, 
be it remembered, the Cape is in the southern hemisphere, 
where the seasons are precisely the reverse of ours ; Janu- 
ary being the hottest, and July the coldest month of the 
year. After a stay of four days, we again put to sea, hav- 
ing, during that time, taken in a supply of fresh water, 
poultry, &c., but we had not long been out of sight of land, 
when our poultry were attacked by an epizootic, and des- 
troyed, so that we were obliged to call at St. Helena, to 
procure fresh provisions. There were a few cases of death 
on board, viz., some invalids and a sailor who had been 
notorious for his immoderate drinking. The bodies were, 
according to the custom of mariners, wrapped in linen 
cloths, and weights having been attached, they were com- 
mitted to the deep, accompanied with prayers. 

Besides these cases of disease, which terminated fatally, 
there were a {^^^ others, with regard to the treatment of 
which I was consulted. I may mention two of them, as the 
diseases frequently occur, and I had the good fortune to 
extricate the ship's surgeon from an embarrassment res- 
pecting them. The first was that of a testy old colonel, 
who, according to his own assertion, was troubled with 
severe rheumatic pains to such a degree, that he was on the 



^ THIRTY FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, 189 

ver^e of despair. In this perplexity he addressed himself 
to me, with the avowal, that the medicines he c;ot from the 
surfreon were not worth a penny, and that if I could n^t 
assist him, he mtist die. I asked him, whether he had ever 
been affected with syphilitic disease, which he admitted 
to have been the case many years before. I, therefore, 
acquainted the suri^eon with this circumstance, and advised 
him to administer decoction of sarsaparilla to the patient. 
There was none on board, however, at that time, but, when 
we reached the Cape, the surgeon procured a supply, and 
be^an to administer it. The impatient colonel, not finding 
instant relief, again gave vent to his exclamations, telling 
me that the beverage was of no service ; 1 persuaded him, 
however, to persevere ; after a fortnight, he acknowledged 
himself to be considerably better ; and, in a month, he was 
completely restored to health. The second case was that of 
a child of twelve months, which, from difficulty in cutting 
its teeth, was afiflicted with convulsions, could not enjoy any 
food, became visibly weak, and every one felt certain that 
the child could not live many days. Leeches, scarification 
of the gums, warm baths, lenitives, and purgatives, had all 
been used, to no purpose. On perceiving the desperite 
state of the child, I inquired of the surgeon whether he 
had tried blistering, and on finding he had not, advised 
him to do so ; he accordingly applied two ( one behind 
each ear ) and from that moment the spasms ceased, the 
teething began, and the child grew better. 

Divine service was regularly performed on board the 
ship, the captain performing it every Sunday, morning and 
evening. There were about two hundred persons on board, 
but, we nevertheless had plenty of provisions ; in fact, we 
may be said to have fared luxuriously ; for, besides an 
abundance of necessary food, we had pastry of some kind 
or other daily, as well as delicious cakes for dessert, and 
many sorts of wines, malt liquor, and spirits. Twice a-week 
champagne was served at our table. One day we met with 
not fewer than nine ships, with some of which we entered 
into communication, inquiring the name of the vessel, whence 



190 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

it came, whither it was bound, what was its cargo, how 
long it had been on the voyage, and what other vessels it 
had spoken with on its way. These communications, unless 
the ship be within speaking distance, are all made by flag- 
signals, of which every vessel possesses a book, or index. 
Previously to the day on which we met with the vessels 
just mentioned, we had not come in sight of any during 
several weeks, when a sail was reported to be visible on 
the horizon ; the passengers immediately v/ent on deck to 
behold the sight. It was an American whaler, and many 
of the sailors were sitting on the tops of the masts to get 
a distant view of the ocean. On the coast of Africa, near 
the Equator, we encountered a vessel, which, from the account 
given us by the captain, was coming from Bombay, bound 
for Calcutta, and had been driven by adverse gales into 
this part of the Atlantic I The crew and passengers were 
sorely distressed for want of provisions, and, without know- 
ing even the name of the captain, we supplied them with rice, 
potatoes, beer, &c., gratis. 

At various periods of the day, even when the sun was 
but slightly visible, the captain and of^cers took observa- 
tions with their nautical instruments ; and, after making 
their calculations, would point out to us, on the map, the 
exact spot on the watery plain which we were then travers- 
ing. In the early part of our voyage, as we approached 
the southern hemisphere, we gradually lost sight of the 
northern constellations, and when we reached the Equator, 
we could not any longer descry the polar star ; but, we 
were compensated for this, by the appearance of other 
constellations in the south, which were gradually manifested 
within our horizon, among which that of the Cross is the 
most magnificent, the others being considerably inferior to the 
northern. These incidents may probably appear superfluous 
to those who have made the voyage ; but, to numbers who 
have not crossed the waste of mighty waters, they may 
possibly afford some interest. 

The various events which I have described in this volume, 
have all been writtsa from memory ; as the only time 



TniRTV-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. tQF 

which I could spare for committin<T any observations to 
paper, was fully enorossed in noting down those which relat- 
ed to medical subjects ; therefore, it can easily be imagined, 
that some of the minor details may be slightly inaccurate, 
and that many an important fact, which would have been 
worth recording, may have escaped my remembrance. I 
can, however, assure my readers, that, as far as my me- 
mory serves me, I have presented to them a faithful record, 
and that I never have, in any instance, wilfully swerved from 
truth. 

In conclusion, I now insert ( in a Translation by a pro- 
fessed literary character ) Dr. Triller'S Rdes of Health: 
This reputable author flourished towards ihe close of the 
17th century, and published a highly esteemed series of 
Epic poems, entitled, 7 he Abduction of a Saxon Prince. 



RULES OF HEALTH. 



I. 

There is a charm in health and length of days, 

Which all men covet, and which most might gain ;. 

And I shall now attempt, in humble lays, 
To tell how I my aged-life did gain. 

However man the debt of nature pays. 
He may, at least, longevity obtain ; 

Learn how I lived, and note what I advise, 

As proper means to win so rich and rare a prize. 

II. 

r 
'Tis to divine beneficence we owe 

Not only life, but that great blessing— health ; 
Yet, man must ever carefully bestow 

Attention on himself, to aid the wealth 
Which nature has bestowed, as though. 

Without our will, she would do good by stealth ; 
Nor should we treat her rudely, lest we feel 
That nerves and muscles are not made of stone nor steeL 



192 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

II!. 

This lesson have I learned in nature's school — 
To act as she dictates, A calm, contented mind 

I sought ; took food and exercise by rule ; 
And hence, was able year to year to bind. 

Our delicate construction^ man's misrule 
Too oft destroys body, and, with it, mind. 

It was not by the aid of drug, nor herb, nor charro,. 

I reached old-age, and kept life free from harm. 

IV. 

The curing virtues which in med'cines dwell, 

Should in disease alone be in request ; 
If you resort to them when you are well, 

You may expect them to disturb your rest. 
Besides, you rob them of their power disease to quell,. 

If in your service they are idly pressed ; 
They who would not medicaments forestall, 
Should take in health no medicines at all. 

V. 

By tinctures, powders, mixtures, draughts, and pills^ 
A hale man always undermines his strength ; 

Lavs the foundation for a host of ills, 

Which take away from life degrees of length : 

Medicine not needed, many a person kills, 

Which, kept till wanted, might give health and strength ; 

He who a sink-hole of his body makes, 

Decided steps for its destruction takes, 

VI. 

Those are mistaken who in every Spring 
And Autumn fancy that they physic need ; 

Nature relieves herself : both man and thing 
Are subject to her laws ; to purge and bleed 

For custom's sake, what is it but to fling 

Health, strength, and life away ? Blockhead indeed 

Is he, who swallows med'cines he does not require ; 

Long ere his time, shall such a dunce expire. 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 193 

VII. 

He who would spend an a^ed life in ease, 

Must, in his habits, keep within due measure; 
In labor, food, and sleep, the medium seize, 

in wine and women take not too much pleasure- 
Such was the counsel of Hippocrates, 

Who thought good health was an important treasure : 
And, at the age of six score years, expired, 
Loved, honored, reverenced, and much admired. 

VIII. 

Night into day let no man think of turning, 
Nor sleep by day to wake up when 'tis night ; 

A brain confused, or with strong potions burning, 
Cannot conceive of men or things aright : 

Let me remark, such feasting folks concerning, 
They are not wise ; but act as if in spite 

Of sense and reason ; for, surely, every one 

Requires some rest after hard labor done. 

IX. 

Why should we, glutton like, our bodies feed 
As if we wished grim Death to cast his dart ? 

Why should we hasten to the grave with speed, 
As if from all our friends we longed to part ? 

Of temperance every man on earth has need. 
To save him from affliction's direful smart ; 

Then why use food as if it held the germs 

Which make ourselves rich nourishment for worms ? 

X. 

Suppose that we should wish our lamp to burn, 

We trim it, nicely, with sufficient oil ; 
But, if we overcharge the feeding urn. 

Of course, the brilliancy of light we spoil, 
Or, put it wholly out : hence, we may learn, 

Without much labor or fdtiguing toil. 
If man his " feeding urn " ( his body ) surfeit, 
The darkness of the grave must prove the forfeit. 



194 TMIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST, 

XI. 

A little generous wine makes glad the heart ; 

Unbends the mind o'er which dull sorrov/ reigns : 
Lightens sad melancholy of its smart, 

And makes infirmity forget its pains ; 
Invigorates the blood ; perforntis its part 

In quickening circulation through the veins ; 
It prompts digestion, and the stomach braces, 
Languor dispels, depression, too, displaces. 

XII. 

If you a recipe for Death require — 

Drink, when o'ertieated, ice-cold water ; 

The effect of which, when freely you perspire. 
Is, to produce of health a complete slaughter : 

5hould this not fully act to your desire, 
It will to comfort leave but little quarter ; 

And a consuming, slow, yet sure decay, 

Will take, midst sufferings, life, at length, away. 

XIII. 

But above all things, let us never fail 
To seek the freshest and the purest air ; 

The richest blessing in the world's vast pale, 
Either for peasants, courtiers, or the fair ; 

Without it, all creation would grow stale, 
And Death usurp dominion everywhere ; 

All animated nature through its aid 

Is vivified, and from destruction stayed : 

XIV. 

'Tis the balsamic stay of human life, 

Increasing strength, and general health bestowing ; 
All those who slight it, set themselves at strife 

With the Creator's aim, with good o'erflowing 
Enjoy the bracing air when Spring is rife 

With balmy odors, gentle zephyr's blowing ; 
They are rich stores of nature's vital wealth, 
Producing length of days and perfect health. 



^THlRtY-TlVE VEA-RS IN TtVE EAST. 195 

XV. 

*rherefofe I say to those who age admire, 

In the free air gaily yourselves disport ; 
And of its virtues full supply acquire, 

By vigorous exercise and merry sport ; 
So may each one most healthfully respire, 

And strengthen every outwork of life's fort ■; 
By air and exercise the body thrives, 
And men of sense thus lengthen out their lives. 

XVI. 

But, while I thus commend the bracing air, 

I must enjoin, in terms not less emphatic, 
That you avoid all drafts ; for they prepare 

The way, and bring on pains rheumatic, 
Which to remove may baffle all your care, 

And leave, for years, those twinges so erratic ; 
Air is of use, but drafts are dangerous things^ 
And spare not peasants, merchants, bankers, kings, 

XVII. 

Also avoid, as you would shun the pest, 

Air that is foul, no matter how created ; 
In crowded rooms be not a frequent guest, 

Nor sit for hoars with wine or grog elated ; 
Foul-air and drinking will disturb your rest. 

And bring on pains not easily abated ; 
And should you feel such fumes affect your brain, 
Rush to fresh-air to make you well again. 

XVIII, 

Cleanliness is next to Godliness, says Paul ; 

And common-sense corroborates his saying ; 
Some wash but seldom, others not all — 

Yet, washing is as needful, oft, as praying : 
If once you into filthy habits fall, 

You are from prudence and religion straying; 
Keep pure your body by such free ablutions 
As may preserve you from unclean pollutions. 
29 



(196 THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 

XIX. 

"Neglect not bathing, as too many do, 

For, thereby, you may ward off many an ill ; 

Sometimes a warm-bath may your strength renew.; 
But, of the cold, be sure to take your fill. 

The Easterns, old and young, this course pursue, 
Nor shun the water though it should be chill ; 

"Hence, such diseases as fell gout and stone, 

To Indians and to Persians are scarce known. 

XX. 

Clean linen as a comfort we esteem, 

And frequent changes of our underdress ; 

These as essential to our health, I deem, 

And therefore urge them on you with some stress- 

'Tis of importance, trifling though it seem. 

What 1 v/ould now upon your minds impress — 

Forget not that whene'er you are attiring. 

Not to put on cold garments, while perspiring. 

XXI. 

Do not neglect the sea, nor flowing river. 
But, in due season, go to beach or brink ; 

Yet, do not stand undressed, to shake and shiver, 
Nor from the healthy plunge affrighted shrink ; 

Lave well your limbs, e'en though muscles quiver. 
And learn to swim, nor be afraid to sink ; 

Swimming invigorates all the limbs and breast. 

Makes the day cheerful, and at night brings rest. 

XXII. 

But, a"bove all, let Diet have your care, 

For, therein healthy action most depends • 

Of after-efforts you may well despair 
For past imprudences to make amends : 

To this point, therefore, I again repair. 
As frequent repetition sometimes tends 

To impress a truth more strongly on the mind, 

And its observance to our practice bind. 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. I97 

-Will. 

A few words more, and then, I shall have done — 

Let man consider well our nature's laws ; 
In every mortal underneath the sun, 

Effects are consequent upon some cause ; 
Body and mind united are in one, 

And each affects the other ; therefore, pause 
Before intemperance blasts the body's healty 
And robs the mind of intellectual wealth. 

XXIV. 
All who these Rules will wisely lay to heart, 

May hope to reach a venerable age, 
Nor wish to stay, nor fear hence to depart ; 

For what is Death hut freedom to the sage ? 
Death has no terrors that can make them start ; 

And when they quit, at length, this mortal stage, 
Pleased with the life of prudence that is past, 
In hope they quietly shall breathe their last ! 



I. 
To Dr. Triller's Rules of Healthy I add one more, 

Though at the hazard of your condemnation ; 
For, there are thousands now, as heretofore. 

Who will not thank me for my observation : 
I also know, that you may quote from lore 

Of ancient days, of some consideration, 
To show the error of the Rule I want 
To give, regarding the Tobacco-plant. 

II. 
Poisons (as arsenic, opium ) may, from use, 

Lose much of their intrinsic, mortal power ; 
Yet, they ?ccq poisons still : 'tis the abuse 

Of the pernicious weed (on which I shower 
The censures of great men — whether ^s juice, 

Or leaf, or dust ) that at this hour, 
Many conceive it innocent. ; but, know 
It is to health a deleterious foe. 



19^ THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EASl^. 

IH. 

Urban the Eighth, we read in history's pagej. 

Passed on snuf-ia^ers ex-commuoication.. 
The Czar of Russia, in a former age. 

Punished the crime of this abomination 
By cutting oft" the nose. The still more" sage 

Senate of Berne, on due deliberation, 
Forbade the Swiss to smoke Tobacco, as a crime- 
Great as was tke/i or murder in the code divine=. 

IV. 

In Canton Valois, I have read or heard, 

Exists a prohibition of its use in Youth ;, 
A man must wait until he gets a beard 

Before he smokes. And 'tis a well-known truth> 
That James the First, of England (" the absurd " ); 

Tried force, to put Tobacco down ;. forsooth, 
A silly trick, in that pedantic king ;. 
As Englishmen, 6ji'/(3/^^, will not, do anything.. 

v> 

Sultan Amurad the Fourth, to death condemned 
All smokers of Tobacco, And that great man 

Baba Nanuk, whose conduct I commend, 
By a religious obligation, formed a plan 

To keep it from the Sikhs ; he did forefend 

That poisonous weed, and through the nation rani 

His interdiction ; e'en as a. remedy for pain, 

All efforts to administer the weed, prove vain. 

VI. 

The ^o-c?i\\^A barbarous Sikh, preserves his race 

Against the noxious plant ; while boasting Europe trie^; 

To increase its filthy use ; Governments have the face,. 
In spite of health, to form monopolies 

Of this most baneful weed — What a disgrace ! 
E'en England's Rulers common-sense defies,, 

Bartering ( by Acts- of Parliament ) the health. 

Of a whole people, for a little wealth ! 



THIRTY-FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST. 



1991 



VI T. 

Able physicians often have asserted, 

By smtffi-ng up Tobacco, also smoking' 
The plant is from its true use much perverted. 

In the fair-sex it ever is provoking 
Sensations of disgust — in short, it is diverted 

From Nature's purpose ! and I end, invoking' 
Hhe Genius of the British Isles, to banish hencs 

CustDHjs so contrary to Common-sense!.' 



I; M. Hi. 



'E^XPl.ANATIOXS OF THE PLATFS. 



:&:■ 



The lithographic engravincrs in thi"^, the first volume, arc 
faitliful copies of Portraits and Sketches, taken by a native 
at Lahore — excepting only the likeness of the Faqueer 
Haridas. which I had from Captain Gardner ; and thoujrh I 
never saw Haridas, I rely no the resemblance ; for, on show- 
incT it to several natives, who knew him well, as also to 
General Ventura and Colonel Sir C. M. Wade, who were 
present at the restoration of the Faqueer, they recognised the 
likeness. 

Before entering upon the Explanations of the Plates, I 
shall give some account of the manners and customs of the 
Sikhs and Hindoos, in addition to the communications already 
made. 

Sikh, Sing^ Singh, Khalsa^ are names of that people known 
to the English by the appellation Sikhs. Sikh is a deriva- 
tion from Sikhna, to learn ; hence, the Sikhs are disciples 
( pupils ) of Baba Nanuk, the Reformer. Sing, signifies a 
hon, or hero ; the Sikhs conceiving themselves to be a power- 
ful race, a nation of warriors. 

In their religious principles, they are Reformed Indians. 
Formerly, the Sikhs inhabited the Punjab only, but, are now 
to be met with in various parts of Hindostan; as in Cashmere, 
Thibet, in the North ; in the South, at Moultan and Scinde ; 
as far as Calcutta, in the East ; and, in the West, at Pisha- 
wur and Cabul. Notwithstanding their Reformation, the 
Shikhs, like the Hindoos, burn their dead ; and were they 
not prohibited by the English, they would burn living be- 
ings also with the dead. Their hair, as elsewhere stated, is 
long ; it is wound up in a knot, placed on the fore-part of 
the head, around which, beginning at tiie knot, they wind 
a long and narrow muslin of fine texture, which they 
denominate Destar, r. e. head-dress, bearing the appearance 



202 



THIRTY-FIVE VEARS IN THE EAST. 



of a helmet. The more opulent add to this head-dress pieces 
of silk, embroidered with silver and gold ; also hooks and 
•clasps, with projecting feathers, and a variety of pearls and 
precious stones. They wear earings of gold and gem^ ^ 
armlets and bracelets, and a profusion of neck orna- 
ments — as exhibited in the male and female portraits in 
Plates I, !2, 3, 4. 

The Hindoos wear their hair short, Which may be seen 
below the head-dress, as in Plate 4. Every morning, after 
ablution, during their rites, they tattoo themselves on the 
nos« between the eyes, with saffron, sandalwood, &c. by 
which their different Castes may be distinguished, and 
whence the performance of abPution is A/isible. In Plates 
'I, 2, 3, the head is engloried ; being the sign o^f majestic 
-^eniisience. 

^Plate. I, Maharajh, or, Maharajah ( King ) 

■Runjeet Sing .-.. ••• v, page 94 
Maharajh ( King ) Kurrack Sing, „ 
•Konwar ( Heir-apparent ) No-Neha'l 

Oin^y *-*m Wm •-•« -)| 

■Maharajh ( King ) Shere, or, Sheer 



»ng, 



'PLAtE. Tl. Ranee ( Queen ) Chunda,* 

Maharajh (King ) Dulleep, or, 

Dhulleep Sing, ... 
Sirdar C Nobleman ) Jewahir, or, 

Jowahar Sing, 
Rajah (Prince ) Lall Sing, 
Blate hi. Maharajh ( King ) Goolab, or, 

Gholab Sing, ■«. ..^ 

Rajah ( Prince ) Dhyan, or, 

Dehan Sing, 



1, Ml. 






„ 119. 



* This is a distinct personage from Maha-Ranee Chund Kour, wife of 
Kurruck Sing, mother of No-Nehal, who for a short period was Queen ; 
and was murdered by her female slaves, as related on page 108. Though 
employed under her government, I never saw her ; much less was she 
visible to any painter ; consequently, I have not obtained a likeness ; but, 
in her stead, I give the portrait of Ranee Chunda. 



-EXPLANATIONS Oh THE PLATES. 



203 



Plate V. 



Plate Vf. 



Rajah ( Prince ) Soochet, or, Suchet 

SiriCT, z;. page 119, 

Rajah ( Prince) Heerah, or, Heera 

^ t>* ••• •«• ••• *| 

Plate IV. Rajah ( Prince ) Teja Sing, ... „ 123. 

Rajah ( Prince ) Deena-Nauth, or, 

Deenanath, ... ... ^^ 

Faqueer or Fakeer ( Devotee ) Noor- 
00-Deen, or, Noorudeen, or, 

Nouredden, „ 

Sirdar ( Nobleman) Dost, or, Dhost 

Mohamed,* ... ... ,j 

Charaina Sowar ( a Cuirassier ) „ 124 

Nahung, or, Akalee ( Immortal ) 

fanatic Sikh, ... ... „ 

Sing Sipahee ( Sepoy ) ... „ 100, 

Mooselman, or, Mussulman 
Sipahee ( Mahomedan Sepoy) „ 
Gorekhee Sipahee ( Napaulese 

Sepoy ) „ 

Plate VII. Haridas „ 131 

Plate VIII. Hakim, or, Hakeem ( Mohamedan 

or Mahomedan Doctor ) „ 145. 

The Doctor is feeling the pulse of his patient, behind 
■whom is a urinal bottle. A medicine chest, containing sim- 
ply electuaries and pills (in wooden boxes ) is beside him ; 
before him lies his notebook, and near it his inkstand^ with 
a cane-pen sticking in it, together with penknife, scissors, 
recipes, and a couple of pomegranates. 

Plate IX. Attar, or, Uttar ( Druggist) ... v. page 154. 

The Druggist is sitting on the outside of his shop, serving 

a customer, A very small and simple distilling apparatus, 

with a refrigerator (cooling vessel) is before him. It is 

v^orthy of remark, that not any names or labels are to be 



« This present Regent of Cabul ddes not strictly belong to this series 
of portaits ; but, as he is notorious in the history of the last Sikh war, and 
having obtained a striking likeness of him, I present it to ray readers. 

30 



.■204 THIRTY FIVE YEARS IN THE EAST 

seen on any of the bottles or jars ; probably, to keep there 
contents a secret from others. 

Plate X. B'hangee ( Hemp-plant Drinker ) v. page 158. 
Chursee Bhistee, or Mushkee ( a Mahomedan 
watercarrier ) smoking Churrus. In his hand, he holds a 
hooka, which he is lighting with a coal taken from the fire be- 
fore him. On his back, is the goat-skin in which he carries 
water. 

Faqueer Postee ( Poppy-head Drinker ) smok- 
ing his hooka, while rubbing poppy-heads with his hands in a 
vessel with water, which he afterwards strains through a 
cloth and drinks. He is tattooed on the arm. Behind him 
may be seen the goat-skin containing water. 

Plate XI. Kar-Khana Abkaree ( Stillatory ) page 161. 

The Distiller, as well as the Drinker, is a Mahomedan. 
This mode of distilling is, however, very imperfect. 

Plate XII. Fac smile of the Badela (document) re- 
appointing the Author of this work Physician to the Court 
of Lahore, also, Superintendent to the Gunpowder and to 
the Gunstock Manufactories, delivered by the Vizier (Wuzeer) 
Jowahar Sing, under Dulleep Sing's government. A copy 
of the document is exhibited on account of its peculiari- 
ties. It is headed with the Signature of the Vizier, and 
stamped with three seals ; the innermost of which, like the 
document itself, is in the Persian language ; the other two, 
together with the Vizier's signature, are in the Goormukee 
character, similar to the 6^;'Z!f«///; ( holy-book ) of the Sikhs^ 
and which characters are already known in Europe. On 
the margin of the page is a Signature, which may serve 
as a specimen of the many signatures with which the back 
of the document is covered ... ... ... z;. page 117, 

Plate XIII. Copy of a document, in Persian, authoriz- 
ing the writer of these volumes to establish, for his own 
account, a Beet-root Sugar manufactory, at Cashmere. It 
is headed v.'ith the signature of Maharajh Gholab 
Sing ... ... ... ... ... .,. V, page 181. 

Plate XIV. Copy of an Order, issued by the late Sikh- 
government, to the author of this work, to receive and 



EXPLANATIONS OF THE PLATES. 20$ 

entertain as Guests, the eighteen Engh'sh prisoners taken at 
Aliwai, and forwarded from Philoor, by Runjoor Sing. This 
Order, also, is headed with the Sfgnature of Gholab Sing, 
who, in the absence of Lall Sing, was then temporary Vizier 
of the State of Lahore ... ... ... ... v. page 126. 

The reason for presenting these Copies to the pubh'c, is 
as follows — In the course of last year, I was informed by 
the Chief Director of the Imperial Government Printing 
Office at Vienna, that there were 500 different species of 
native, and 104 foreign types, in that establishment ; among 
which I observed the Goormukee characters of the Sikhs, 
mentioned in the explanation of Plate XII : yet, amid that 
vast collection, the character of the signature of Maharajh 
Gholab Sing, as exhibited on this and the preceding docu- 
ment, is not to be found — a curiosity worthy of observa- 
tion — and, at the request of the Director of that famous 
establishment, the writer hereof has undertaken, on his return 
to the East, to furnish that hitherto unknown character in 
Europe, to the Imperial Printing Office, after having as- 
certained the reality of the existence of such a Character 
and that it is not merely a Monogram belonging to this 
family of the Rajahs of the Hills. 

In a corner of this Plate, is added a similar Signature of 
the late' Rajah Heera Sing, nephew of Gholab Sing. 

Plate XV. Omitted ; and consequently the explana- 
tions have been left out. — Ed.. 

Plate XVI. Jerah, or Jerrah, or Jurrah ( Surgeon ) or 
Nai ( Barber ) or Hajam ( Cupper ) ^- page 153.. 

The Barber is represented shaving the head. His ap- 
paratus near him, 



Led by sagacious. taste, the ruthless king- 

Of beasts, on blood and slaughter only lives; 

The tiger, formed alike to cruel meals, 

Would at the manager starve ; of milder seeds 

The generous horse to herbage and to grain 

Confines his wish — -though fabling Greece resounds 

The Thracian steeds with human-carnage wild,. 

Prompted by instinct's nevsr-erring power, 

Each creature knov/s its proper aliment ; 

But man, the inhabitant of every clime, 

With all the commoners of Nature feeds I 

Directed, bounded, by this power within, 

Their cravings are well aimed : vouptuous maot 

Is by superior faculties misled ; 

Misled from pleasure e'en in quest of joy, 

Sated with Nature's boons, what thousands seek^, 

With dishes tortured from their native taste. 

And mad variety, to spur beyond 

Its wiser will, the jaded appetite ! 

Is this for pleasure ? Learn a juster taste ; , 

Aod know, that Umperance is true luxury^ 



INDEXV 



PA(.E. 

introduction -.--.-- j. 

AlIcEpathia and Homoeopathia - - - - iv. 

Tea and Coffee not pernicious .... vii. 

Medical knovvledge,.the result of Experience - . ix.. 

Agreeable form in which Medicines may be administer- 
ed . - - - • - - X. 

The grand Pvule to be obsarved by all Medical men - xi. 

Nostrums — Morrison's and Holloway's Pills, Warburg's 

Drops, kc. • - ' - ■ - xii. 

Arsenic recommended, as a Medicine - - - xii. 

The Science of Medicine — Stationary . . - - xiir. 

Advice on the Preparations of Medicines . . xiv. 

Monopolies of Churrus, Saffron, and Putchuk-root, by 

the Cashmerean Government - . - xv. 

Object of this work .-..-. xvf. 

Recommendation to the faculty in India -- - xvii. 

The Author's return to Lahore, in 1839 - xviii. 

Letter from the late Wm. Stinner, to the Author . xxii. 

Fatal power of Prejudice - - . xxiii. 

Sydenham, &c - - - - - - xxiv 

How the properties of Medicines may be ascertained - xxv. 

lyiinute doses alone, can produce real medicinal action xxvi 

A pocket-book recommended to Physicians and Fami- 
lies . . . - . xxvii 

Adventures, Discoveries, Experiments and His- 
torical Sketches - - - - i 

The Author leaves Home ( Kronstadt in Transylvania ) 

in 1815 ...... I 

Voyage to Constantinople . - . - i 

Travels towards Jerusalem, 1817 — 1819 - - 4 

The Author introduces Vaccination into Syria, in 1S22 . 7 



208 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Barber, Governor of Tripoly, in Syria - - i8, 8 

Lady Esther Stanhope, at Araba, in Syria - - 9 

Kannobin not a Town, but a Convent - - - lO 

Tapeworm, 52 yards in length - - - - 12 
The Author's agreeable abode in Palestine during 

several years - - - - - I3 

The Caesarian operation thwarted by the Greek Bishop 17 

Wolfif, the wide world known Missionary - - 19 

The Author present at the Siege of Acre - - 19 
Voyage to Alexandria - - - - -19 

The Author visits Mr. Reynolds, at Cyprus, in 1823 - 20 

Attanas Keptenak, at Alexandria - - - 20 

Doctors Hemprich and Ehrenberg - - 81, 21 

Padre Tomaso .-.--- 21: 

Mr. Henri Da Turck - - - - - 23. 
The Author accompanies the Pacha of Damascus to the 

Fair at Muzerib . - - - - 23, 

Journey through the Desert, to Bagdad - - 23 

Made of Healing practised by the Arabs - - 24 

TheAghaofHit - - - - - 25 

Kind reception by Mr, Swoboda at Bagdad - - S^ 

Deserted by the Guide, in the Desert - - - 35 

Embarked for Bender-Bushir, in Persia - - 27 

Famine at Mosul, in 1828 - - - - 40 
The Author at the point of death,, at Heirpore, in 

Scinde . - - - - - 41 
From Bagdad to Lahore, the Author travels four 

months ; two on land, and two on water - - 45 
The first patient in Lahore, the adopted Son of 

General Allard - - - - - 45 
The Author attended Rajah. Suchet Sing into the 

mountains - - - - - 46 

The Author's treatment of Hydrophobia. - - 48 

Colonel Sir C. M. Wade - - - 49, 4S 

New Nose made by the native of India - . - 49 

Milk-Sugar made by Order of Runjeet Sing - ' S^ 

Coffee unknown at Lahore, in 1832 - - - 52 



INDEX. 209 

•PAGE. 

The Author struck by a Coup-de-Soceil - - 53 

Glanders cured by the Author - - - - 54 
General Avitabile very fond of Hanging, as a Punish- 
ment - - - - - '55 

A Musk-deer caught, in the Plains of India - - 56 

Runjeet Sing - - - - - 57, 58 
The Author appointed Superintendent of a Gunpov/der 

and Gunstock Manufactory, at Lahore • - 57 
The Author's return from India to Europe, in 

1833-1834 59 

Vaccination introduced, at Dhera-Ghasi-Khan, by the 

Author - - - - - - 59 

Vaccination unknown at Cabui, in 1833 - - - 60 

The Author's collections of Plants and Antiquities - 61 

Loss of the Bactrian Scroll ! - - - - 62 

Opening of the Tombs, at Cabul, by the Author - 62 

Hospbegi, the Minister of State, at Bokhara 69, 6%, 66, 65 

Fatal operation on a Student, at Bokhara - - 66 

Cure of a chronic Asthma, at Bokhara - - - 69 

Efificacy of Wax-oil - - - - - 71 

Two unfortunate Armenians from Astrakhan, at Bokhara 72 

Horse-milk ( Kumiss ) a nutritious beverage - - 74 
The Author's speculation in Sable-skins, at Nishni-Now- 

gorod - - - - - - 76 

The Author's excursion to St. Petersburgh, in 1834 - 79 
The Author's conversation with the Grand Duchess 

Helene, at St. Petersburgh - - - 79 
Trip to Kronstadt, the Port of St. Petersburgh - - 80 
Encounter with a Chimney-sweeper - - - 81 
Arrival at Kronstadt, in Transylvania, on Christmas- 
eve, 1834 - - - - - - 81 

Narrow escape of the Author from falling down a 

Precipice - - - - - - Si 

Visit to Vienna, passing through Hungary, in 1835 - 83 

A visit to Dr. Hahnemann, at Paris, 1835 - - 83 

Voyage from London to Hamburgh, in 1835 - - 84 

Homoeopathic Medicaments of Dr. Lehman, at Kothen 84 



2;iO INI) Ex. 

PAGE. 
The Author returns tc Kronstadt, bis native place, 

in 1835 - - . - - - 84 

Sojourns at Vienna, from Spring to Autumn, in 1836 - 84 

Second voyage to Constantinople - - - 85 

The Plague not contagious - ^ - - 86 

The Author's success in the Plague-hospital, at Pera - 86 
Success of Homoeopathic doses at Constantinople, 

during 1 836- 1 838. - - - - - 88 
Cure of the Sultan's son ( the present Sultan ) by an 

Armenian lady - - - - - 90 

The Author leaves Constantinople for Lahore, in 1838 - 90 

An account of the Plague at Palee - - - 92 
The Author's recovery from the Plague, caught at 

Palee =■ - - - - - 93 
Arrival at Lahore ( by the Overland route ) in the 

Spring of 1839 - - - - - 94 

Doctors Murray, Steel, and Macgregor - - - 96 
Administration of Homoeopathic doses to Runjeet 

Sing - - .... 96 

The Author's recompence, by Runjeet Sing - - 97 

An account of the Suttee— the burning of Wives, &c. - lor 

Colonel Henry Steinbach - ^ - - lOl 

Ascension of Kurruck Sing to the throne - - 104 

Commencement of the bloody Scenes in the Punjab - 105 

No-Nehal, Kurruck Sing's only Son, usurps the throne 105 
Deaths of Kurruck Sing, No-Nehal Sing, and Meean 

Oottum Sing ( eldest Son of Gholab Sing ) on one 

day - - - - - - 106 

Ascension of the Ranee Chund Kour, Mother of No- 
Nehal Sing, to the throne . - - - 108 
Sheer Sing's ascension to the throne . - - 109 
Assassination of Sheer Sing, by Ajeet Sing - - iir 
The royal prince Pertaub Sing, twelve years of age, 

assassinated by Lena Sing, uncle to Ajeet Sing - in 
Ascension of DuUeep Sing, youngest son of Runjeet 

Sing - - - - - - 112 

Jellah Pundit, a fanatical Brahmin - - - 112 



INDEX. 211 

PAGE. 

Massacre of Heera Sinc^, and all his Retinue - - ii3 

The Author's escape, when Sheer Sin^ was assassinated 114 
Dismissal of the Author from the Court of Lahore, 

in 1844 - - - - - - 114 

The Author re-instated, by Jewahir Sing, in 1844 - ^^7 

Jewahir Sing shot, by the Soldiery - - - 118 

Cholera-morbus at Lahore, in 1845 - - - 119 

Runjoor Sing, Commander of the Sikhs at AHwal - 119 

Robbery committed by Runjoor Sing's soldiers - 119 

Lall Sing, appointed Prime Minister - - - 121 

Teja Sing proclaimed Commender-in-Chief of the 

forces . ^ . . . . 122 

Prince Waldemar of Prussia, in the English ranks - 123 

Decisive Battle of Sobraon, on lOth February, 1846 - 123 

Death of the Baba Beer Sing . - - . 124 

Utter Sing, brother to Lena Sing the murderer of the 

Prince -.-... 124 

Gholab Sing remained neutral, at Jummoo - - 125 

The Author's conversation with Gholab Sing - - 126 

English prisoners at Philoor, sent as Guests to the 

Author's house, by Gholab Sing - - 126 
The Author accompanies Gholab Sing, as private Coun- 
sellor, to the English Camp ... 126 
End of the Independent State founded by Runjeet 

Sing ..---. 127 
Sir Henry Lawrence, appointed to the English Resident- 
ship, at Lahore, in 1846 - - . 127 
Lall Sing removed, by the English, to Agra, and pen- 
sioned --.--. 128 
Tejah Sing created Rajah of Seealkot ■ - - 128 
The Ranee exiled, by the English, to the Fortress of 
Sheg-Opur, and afterwards to anothor Fortress on 
the Ganges, whence she contrived to escape - 12S 
Sir Frederick Currie Resident of Lahore, during the 
absence of Sir Henry Lawrence, who accompanied 
Lord Hardinge to England - - - 128 
Murder of Agnew and Anderson, at Mooltan - - 129 
31 



212 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Decisive Battles of Mooltan and Gujerat, in 1849 - 130 

End of the Author's official post, as Physician to the 

Court - - - - - - 13a 

Suspension of Life, in the person of Haridas - - 131 

A Faqueer uninjured by the bite of venomous Serpents 138 

Dr. VV. Jameson - - - - - I39 

Arsenic Eaters ------ 141 

The Author's collection of Serpents - - - 142 

Advice in all cases of Bites from venomous creatures - 143 

Serpent-love ( said to be restricted to the Punjab ) - 144 

Sheer Sing, " The Son of a Laundress," explained - 147 
The Author's adoption of the Medium-system, in 

Medicine - - - - - - 147 

In 1845, upwards of 800 deaths daily from Cholera, at 

Lahore ----.- i^g 

Galvano-electric Rings ----- 149 

Zinc and Silver plates, united by a silver wire - - 150 

Operations, whilst patients were under the influence of 

Chloroform - - - - - 15^1 

Ether and Chloroform mixed, preferable - - 152 

Mahomedan Stone-operator - - - ■ 152 

Native Oculists at Lahore - - - "153 

Amputation unknown at Lahore, until introduced by 

the Author - - - - - '53 

A sort of Animal-magnetism practised in the Punjab - 153 

The pulse considered of high importance, in the East - 153 

Alms given, in the East, on every occasion of Illness - 154 

Major Mac Gregor, director of Police, at Lahore - 155 

The Author sends for Assistants, to Europe - - 155 

Many Hermaphorodites at Lahore - - - 157 

Natives of the Punjab rejoice at the demise of Female 

infants - - - - - -I57 

Intoxicating beverage prepared from the Hemp-plant - 158 

Churrus, smoked in the pipe, very intoxicating - 161 

The Sikhs and Hindoos refuse Medicines prepared 

with Liquids, by the hands of Europeans - 160 



INDI'X, ^^ 215" 

PAGE. 
The Sikhs forbidden to smoke Tobacco, but permitted 

to take Opium and Spirituous liquors - - l6l 
Cure for Opium-eaters, Drinkers of the infusion of 

Poppy-heads, Sic. ----- 163 

Macfendie's Experiment . - . . 164 
" Wonders of Sympathy and Magnetism, &c. by 

Gerstenbergk " - - - - - 165 

There is no food which may not serve as Medicine - 166 
It is common for every Hindoo to prepare his own 

dinner ...--- 16S 
Cold beverages sometimes increase Thirst in the hot 

season ------ 169 

Beneficial effects produced by Cold-baths - - 17O 

Two Recipes for Hair-dyes ... - - 171 

Sheer Sing extremely polite and amiable - . - 173 

In 1844 all Europeans dismissed by the Sikhs - - 174 

The Author visited, at Lahore, by his Brother - - 174 

Herr August Schofft's adventure at Umritsir - - 175 

Colonels Mouton and Hurbon dismissed - - 180 
The Author's intention and object in again returning 

to Cashmere - - - - - 180 

Tapping for Dropsy, unknown in Cashmere, in 1849 - 182 
Europeans, up to 1849, received and entertained as 

Guests in Cashmere - - . - 183 
Lord Gifford and the unfortunate Colonel King visit- 
ed Cashmere ----- 183 
The Maharajah of Cashmere ( Ghclab Sing ) pretends 

to cure all cases of Paralysis - - - 183 

Curious species of theft, practised in Cashmere - 184 

Cashmerean Plants may be obtained by Doctors in 

Europe ------ 185 

In September 1849, the Author leaves Cashmere for 

Europe ------ 186 

The Author visits his two Daughters at Mussoorie - 186 

Pleasant passage down the Ganges to Calcutta - 186 

Inhabitants of Santiporci; on the Ganges - - 187 



'Sm . s INDEX. 

PAGE, 
Dr. James Esdaile's operations at Calcutta, upon 

patients under Mesmeric influence - - 187 
No Beggars seen by the Author, at the Cape of Good 

Hope ------ r88 

Br. TxxWqx's Rules of Health - - - - 191 

The Author's addition,, on the abuse of Tobacco - 197 

Explanation of the Plates . - - - 201 

ludex ---.--. 207 






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CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



R Honigberger, Johann Martin 

605 Thirty-five years in the East 

n77 

1905 



Bi oiled 



T, 



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